The following factors increase a woman’s risk of developing gestational diabetes:
- Ethnicity: Asian, Indian subcontinent, Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander, Pacific Islander, Maori, Middle Eastern, non-white African
- Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m²
- Previous hyperglycaemia in pregnancy
- Previous elevated blood glucose level
- Maternal age ≥40 years
- Family history of diabetes mellitus (close relative with diabetes or a sister with hyperglycaemia in pregnancy)
- Previous macrosomia (baby with birth weight >4500g or >90th percentile)
- Polycystic ovary syndrome
- Medications: corticosteroids, antipsychotics (Nankervis et al. 2014).
Nankervis A, Mclntyre HD, Moses R, Ross G, Callaway L, Porter C et al. 2014. ADIPS consensus guidelines for the testing and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in Australia. Sydney: Australasian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society.