Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2022) Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia: early insights, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 02 December 2022.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2022). Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia: early insights. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol-other-drug-treatment-services/alcohol-other-drug-treatment-services-aus
Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia: early insights. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 14 April 2022, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol-other-drug-treatment-services/alcohol-other-drug-treatment-services-aus
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia: early insights [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2022 [cited 2022 Dec. 2]. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol-other-drug-treatment-services/alcohol-other-drug-treatment-services-aus
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2022, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia: early insights, viewed 2 December 2022, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol-other-drug-treatment-services/alcohol-other-drug-treatment-services-aus
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Closed treatment episode
An episode of treatment for alcohol and other drugs is the period of contact, with defined dates of commencement and cessation, between a client and a treatment provider or team of providers in which there is no change in the main treatment type or the principal drug of concern, and there has not been a non-planned absence of contact for greater than 3 months.
A treatment episode is considered closed where any of the following occurs:
Treatment episodes are excluded from the AODTS NMDS for a reporting year if they:
Drugs of concern
The principal drug of concern is the main substance that the client stated led them to seek treatment from the AOD treatment agency. In this report, only clients seeking treatment for their own substance use are included in analyses of principal drug of concern. It is assumed that only the person using the substance themselves can accurately report principal drug of concern; therefore, these data are not collected from those who seek treatment for someone else’s drug use.
Additional drugs of concern refers to any other drugs the client reports using in addition to the principal drug of concern. Clients can nominate up to 5 additional drugs of concern, but these drugs are not necessarily the subject of any treatment within the episode.
All drugs of concern refers to all drugs reported by clients, including the principal drug of concern and any additional drugs of concern.
Reasons for cessation
The reasons for a client ceasing to receive a treatment episode from an AOD treatment service include:
Treatment type refers to the type of activity used to treat the client’s alcohol or other drug problem. Rehabilitation, withdrawal management (detoxification) and pharmacotherapy are not available for clients seeking treatment for someone else’s drug use.
The main treatment type is the principal activity that is determined at assessment by the treatment provider to be necessary for the completion of the treatment plan for the client’s alcohol or other drug problem for their principal drug of concern. One main treatment type is reported for each treatment episode. ‘Assessment only’, 'support and case management' and 'information and education' can be reported only as main treatment types.
In 2019–20, changes were made to categories under Main Treatment; the word ‘only’ was removed from support and case management and information and education. The removal of the word ‘only’ from support and case management and information and education, changed reporting rules for agencies; allowing agencies to be able to report and more accurately capture these items as an additional treatment in conjunction with a main treatment type.
Other treatment types refer to other treatment types provided to the client, in addition to their main treatment type. Up to 4 additional treatment types can be reported.
Note that Victoria and Western Australia do not supply data on additional treatment types. In these jurisdictions, each type of treatment (main or additional) results in a separate episode.
additional drugs: Clients receiving treatment for their own drug use nominate a principal drug of concern that has led them to seek treatment and additional drugs of concern, of which up to 5 are recorded in the AODTS NMDS. Clients receiving treatment for someone else’s drug use do not nominate drugs of concern.
additional treatment type: Clients receive 1 main treatment type in each episode and additional treatment types as appropriate, of which up to 4 are recorded in the AODTS NMDS.
agency: agencies included in the Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Data Set (AODTS NMDS) are publicly funded (at state, territory, or Australian Government level) government and non-government agencies that provide one or more specialist alcohol and other drug treatment services, whether residential or non-residential. Acute care hospitals or psychiatric hospitals are also included if they have specialist alcohol and other drug units that provide treatment to non-admitted patients (for example, outpatient services), as are Indigenous or mental health services if they provide specialist alcohol and other drug treatment.
alcohol: A central nervous system depressant made from fermented starches. Alcohol inhibits brain functions, dampens the motor and sensory centres and makes judgement, coordination and balance more difficult.
amphetamines: Stimulants that include methamphetamine, also known as methylamphetamine. Amphetamines speed up the messages going between the brain and the body. Common names are speed, fast, up, uppers, louee, goey and whiz. Crystal methamphetamine is also known as ice, shabu, crystal meth, base, whiz, goey or glass.
Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC): Common framework defined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics for collection and dissemination of geographically classified statistics. The ASGC was implemented in 1984 and the final release was in 2011. It has been replaced by the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS).
Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Common framework defined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics for collection and dissemination of geographically classified statistics. The ASGS replaced the ASGC in July 2011.
benzodiazepines: Also known as minor tranquillisers, these drugs are most commonly prescribed by doctors to relieve stress and anxiety, and to help people sleep. Common names include benzos, tranx, sleepers, downers, pills, serras (Serepax®), moggies (Mogadon®) and normies (Normison®).
client: an individual who is assessed and/or accepted for treatment for their own or someone else’s alcohol or other drug use from an in-scope agency and who is aged 10 or older at the start of the treatment episode.
client type: The status of a person in terms of whether the treatment episode concerns their own alcohol and/or other drug use or that of another person. Clients may seek treatment or assistance concerning their own alcohol and/or other drug use, or treatment and/or assistance in relation to the alcohol and/or other drug use of another person.
client counts: Includes:
closed treatment episode: A period of contact between a client and a treatment provider, or team of providers. An episode is closed when treatment is completed, there has been no further contact between the client and the treatment provider for 3 months, or when treatment is ceased (see reason for cessation).
cocaine: A drug that belongs to a group of drugs known as stimulants. Cocaine is extracted from the leaves of the coca bush (Erythroxylum coca). Some of the common names for cocaine include C, coke, nose candy, snow, white lady, toot, Charlie, blow, white dust and stardust.
diversion client type: Clients who received at least 1 AOD treatment episode during a collection year resulting from a referral by a police or court diversion program. The 2 subtypes in this group are:
ecstasy (MDMA): The popular street name for a range of drugs containing the substance 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)—a stimulant with hallucinogenic properties. Common names for ecstasy include Adam, Eve, MDMA, X, E, the X, XTC and the love drug.
GHB: stands for gamma hydroxybutyrate, which is a central nervous system depressant. Common names for GHB include, G, Grievous Bodily Harm, fantasy, liquid E, liquid ecstasy and blue nitro.
government agency: An agency that operates from the public accounts of the Australian Government or a state or territory government, is part of the general government sector and is financed mainly from taxation.
heroin: One of a group of drugs known as opioids, which are strong pain-killers with addictive properties. Heroin and other opioids are classified as depressant drugs. Common names for heroin include smack, skag, dope, H, junk, hammer, slow, gear, harry, big harry, horse, black tar, China white, Chinese H, white dynamite, dragon, elephant, boy, home-bake or poison.
illicit drug use: Includes:
licit drug use: The use of legal drugs in a legal manner, including tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption.
main treatment type: The principal activity that is determined at assessment by the treatment provider to treat the client’s alcohol or other drug use for the principal drug of concern.
median: The midpoint of a list of observations ranked from the smallest to the largest.
method of use for principal drug of concern: The client’s usual method of administering the principal drug of concern as stated by the client. Includes: ingests, smokes, injects, sniffs (powder), inhales (vapour), other and not stated.
nicotine: The highly addictive stimulant drug in tobacco.
non-government agency: An agency that receives some government funding, but is not controlled by the government, and is directed by a group of officers or an executive committee. A non-government agency may be an income tax-exempt charity.
principal drug of concern: The main substance that the client stated led them to seek treatment from an alcohol and drug treatment agency.
reason for cessation: The reason the client ceased to receive a treatment episode from an alcohol and other drug treatment service. The client can have:
The grouped categories used in the report for reason for cessation:
referral source: The source from which the client was transferred or referred to the alcohol and other drug treatment service.
standard drink: Contains 10 grams of alcohol (equivalent to 12.5 millilitres of alcohol). Also referred to as a full serve.
tobacco: A plant, Nicotiana tabacum, whose leaves are dried and used for smoking and chewing and in snuff. Its major pharmacologically active substance is the alkaloid nicotine (see nicotine).
treatment delivery setting: The main physical setting in which the type of treatment that is the principal focus of a client's alcohol and other drug treatment episode is actually delivered to a client (irrespective of whether or not this is the same as the usual location of the service provider).
treatment episode: The period of contact between a client and a treatment provider or a team of providers. Each treatment episode has 1 principal drug of concern and 1 main treatment type. If the principal drug or main treatment changes, then a new episode is recorded.
treatment type: The type of activity that is used to treat the client’s alcohol or other drug use, which includes:
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