Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2022) Mental health services in Australia, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 28 May 2022.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2022). Mental health services in Australia. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/mental-health-services/mental-health-services-in-australia
Mental health services in Australia. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 17 May 2022, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/mental-health-services/mental-health-services-in-australia
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Mental health services in Australia [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2022 [cited 2022 May. 28]. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/mental-health-services/mental-health-services-in-australia
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2022, Mental health services in Australia, viewed 28 May 2022, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/mental-health-services/mental-health-services-in-australia
Get citations as an Endnote file:
Restrictive practices in care settings include any practices and interventions that restrict a person’s rights, including their freedom to move (Australian Government 2014; SQPSC 2016).
State and territory mental health-related legislation specifies the conditions under which restrictive practices may be used. These include the assessment, admission and treatment of people in health services on an involuntary basis in some circumstances, and the use of seclusion (when a person is confined alone in a room or area where free exit is prevented) and restraint (when a person’s freedom of movement is restricted by physical or mechanical means). Minimising the use of seclusion and restraint in mental health services is a key focus across multiple sectors—including consumers, carers, governments and services.
This section reports the latest available national data on the treatment of people on an involuntary basis in Australian public community mental health care services, residential mental health services, and acute and psychiatric hospitals. This section also reports data on the use of seclusion and restraint in Australian mental health acute hospital services.
Restrictive practices in mental health care tables 2020–21 (78KB XLXS)
Restrictive practices in mental health care section 2020–21 (948KB PDF)
Data source and key concepts related to this section
Data coverage is 2019–20 for involuntary care, 2008–09 to 2020–21 for seclusion, and 2015–16 to 2020–21 for restraint. This section was last updated in May 2022.
Involuntary treatment in hospital care and rates of seclusion and restraint are national indicators under the Key Performance Indicators for Australian Public Mental Health Services.
Consumer outcomes in mental health care
Consumer perspectives of mental health care
Specialised mental health care facilities
All states and territories have legislation on the treatment of people with mental illness. These include provisions relating to the treatment of people on an involuntary basis, which means that under some specific circumstances, a treatment order can be applied to provide mental health treatment—including medication and therapeutic interventions—without the person’s consent being given.
A person’s mental health legal status indicates if their treatment was on an involuntary basis.
Each state and territory’s mental health legislation and associated regulations provide the legal frameworks that safeguard the rights and govern the treatment of people with mental illness. Legislation varies between states and territories but all contain provisions for the assessment, admission and treatment of people on an involuntary basis. Approval is required under mental health legislation in order to detain people in hospital for compulsory mental health care or to provide compulsory treatment in the community.
Involuntary care in this report refers to people who were compulsorily detained in hospital and/or treated in community services under mental health legislation for the purpose of assessment or provision of appropriate treatment or care.
In Australia, people can receive mental health treatment on an involuntary basis in community care, residential care, and/or admitted care settings.
Nationally, during 2019–20 around 1 in 7 community mental health care service contacts (14.7%) and 1 in 5 residential mental health care episodes (19.9%) were involuntary (Figure RP.1).
In community mental health services, care is recorded as involuntary if the person is receiving care on an involuntary basis at the time of contact. For residential services care is recorded as involuntary if the person received involuntary treatment at any time during their period of mental health care—the person may not have been given treatment involuntarily for the entire period of care.
Nationally, during 2019–20 around half of patient days in Acute admitted patient units (55.6%) and Non-acute admitted patient units (49.7%) were involuntary. This represents the proportion of time spent in hospital care under which people received involuntary treatment. People aged 35–39 years and 40–44 years had the highest proportion in Non-acute units, while people aged 25–29, 30–34 and 40–44 years had the highest proportion in Acute units.
Bar chart showing the proportion of involuntary mental health care by state/territory and service setting in 2019–20 for acute and non-acute inpatient days, community mental health care contacts and residential mental health care episodes. Refer to Tables RP.2 and RP.3.
Note: Direct comparison between settings is not possible due to different counting units and criteria. More information is in the data source section.
Sources: National Residential Mental Health Care Database, National Community Mental Health Care Database, State and territory governments; Tables RP.2 and RP.3.
Source data: Restrictive practices in mental health care tables (78KB XLSX)
Involuntary care in admitted settings can also be reported for hospitalisations. During 2019–20, almost half (45.6%) of hospitalisations in Acute units and almost 1 in 3 (30.9%) hospitalisations in Non-acute (Other) units nationally were involuntary (Table RP.3). Like residential care, a hospitalisation is coded as involuntary if the person received involuntary treatment at any time during the care period—patients may not be given involuntary treatment for their entire hospitalisation.
Involuntary treatment in hospital care is included in the Key Performance Indicators for Australian Public Mental Health Services. These indicators contribute to measuring the performance and progress of mental health services in Australia. The indicators are also reported on Mental health services in Australia. Refer to the data source section for more information.
Seclusion is the confinement of a person at any time alone in a room or area from which free exit is prevented. The purpose, duration, structure of the area and awareness of the person are not considered in determining what constitutes seclusion.
Seclusion also applies if the person agrees to or requests confinement of their own accord. However, if voluntary isolation or time alone is requested and the person is free to leave at any time then this is not considered seclusion.
Restraint is the restriction of a person’s freedom of movement by physical or mechanical means. Physical restraint is the use of hands-on immobilisation techniques by health staff. Mechanical restraint is the application of devices on a person’s body to restrict their movement (for example, belts or straps).
Each state and territory’s Mental Health Act and associated regulations provide the legislative frameworks that safeguard the rights and govern the treatment of people with mental illness. Legislation varies between states and territories but all include criteria for when and where seclusion and restraint may be used.
Some people with mental illness and their carers advocate that restrictive practices do not benefit the consumer and that these interventions infringe on human rights and compromise the therapeutic relationship between the consumer and the clinician (Melbourne Social Equity Institute 2014).
Seclusion and/or restraint in health services can be used to provide safety and containment at times when this is considered necessary to protect consumers, health service staff and others. However, use of seclusion and/or restraint can also be distressing for the consumer, support people, representatives, other patients, staff and visitors. Wherever possible, alternative ways of managing a consumer’s behaviour should be used to minimise the use of these restrictive practices.
The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists acknowledges this point of view in its position statement Minimising and, where possible, eliminating the use of seclusion and restraint in people with mental illness (RANZCP 2021), which states that seclusion and restraint should only be used “…as a safety measure of last resort where all other interventions…” were considered.
People receiving mental health care in hospitals were secluded 12,371 times nationally during 2020–21. On average, a seclusion event lasted for 5.2 hours (excluding Forensic services) (Figure RP.2).
Patients were restrained 19,690 times by physical means and 1,108 times by mechanical means nationally during 2020–21 (Figure RP.2.1).
Figure RP.2: Bar graph showing the number of seclusion events in Australia from 2013–14 to 2020–21. A line overlaying the bars shows the average duration of seclusion in Australia for the same period. Refer to Table RP.5.
Figure RP.2.1: Bar graph showing the number of mechanical and physical restraint events in Australia from 2015–16 to 2020–21. Refer to Table RP.8.
Notes: Average duration of seclusion does not include South Australia prior to 2018–19.
Queensland did not collect information on physical restraint events prior to 2017–18.
Source: National Seclusion and Restraint Database, Tables RP.5 and RP.8
Source data: Restrictive practices in mental health care tables (78KB XLSX).
During 2020–21 there were 7.3 seclusion events per 1,000 bed days. This is a decrease from a rate of 8.1 the previous year, and from 15.6 during 2008–09 when data coverage begins (Figure RP.3).
There is an overall downward trend in seclusion rate observed from 2009–10, which marks the first year of data collection for all 8 jurisdictions (a rate of 13.9). Over the last 5 years (2016–17 to 2020–21) there has been an average annual decrease in the national seclusion rate of -0.4%.
Nationally, during 2020–21 there were 11.6 physical restraint events and 0.7 mechanical restraint events per 1,000 bed days (Figure RP.3.1).
The rate of physical restraint has remained between 10.1 and 11.6 in the period since 2015–16 when data coverage begins. The rate of physical restraint has increased from 10.3 in 2017–18, which marks the 1st year of collection for all eight jurisdictions.
The rate of mechanical restraint was 1.7 during 2015–16 when data coverage begins. Over the last 5 years (2016–17 to 2020–21) the average annual change in the mechanical restraint rate is -8.2%.
In keeping with the national priority to minimise the use of seclusion and restraint, rates are included in the Key Performance Indicators for Australian Public Mental Health Services national set (CHC 2017; National Mental Health Working Group 2005 as cited in NMHPSC 2013). These indicators contribute to measuring the performance and progress of mental health services in Australia. The indicators are also reported on Mental health services in Australia. Refer to the data source section for more information.
Figure RP.3: Line graph showing seclusion events per 1,000 bed days for all states and territories from 2008–09 to 2020–21. There is an overall downward trend, with the exception of ACT. Refer to Table RP.5.
Figure RP.3.1: Line graph showing mechanical and physical restraint events per 1,000 bed days for all states and territories from 2015–16 to 2020–21. Mechanical restraint shows an overall downward trend, with the exception of NSW. Physical restraint shows an overall upward trend, with the exception of Vic where the rate has decreased over time. Refer to Table RP.8.
Rates are not calculated where numerators are less than 5 or denominators are less than 100 due to the potential for unreliable statistics. Queensland did not collect information on physical restraint events prior to 2017–18. Comparisons between jurisdictions, between years, and for smaller jurisdictions should be undertaken with caution. More information is in the data source section.
Seclusion rates decreased for all jurisdictions in 2020–21 from the first year of data coverage (2008–09 or 2009–10) (Figure RP.3). Over this period, seclusion rates have more than halved for Victoria, Western Australia and the Northern Territory.
While the seclusion rate during 2020–21 increased from the previous year (2019–20) for Tasmania, Northern Territory, South Australia and Victoria, these rates are still lower than in 2008–09 or 2009–10. The seclusion rate during 2020–21 decreased from the previous year for the remaining jurisdictions.
Physical restraint rates decreased for Victoria during 2020–21 from the first year of data coverage (2015–16; 2017–18 for Queensland) while all other jurisdictions showed increases or little change (Figure RP.3.1). The physical restraint rate during 2020–21 increased from the previous year for Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and the Northern Territory, and decreased for New South Wales, Western Australia and the Australian Capital Territory,
Mechanical restraint rates in 2020–21 are 1.2 per 1,000 bed days or lower. These rates have decreased or show little change from the first year of data coverage (2015–16), while the rate in New South Wales increased from 0.6 to 1.0.
Data for smaller jurisdictions should be interpreted with caution as small changes in the number of seclusion or restraint events can have a marked impact on their overall rate. Further data quality information is in the data source section.
Seclusion and restraint data can also be presented by the target population of the service where the event occurred.
For seclusion data during 2020–21 around three-quarters (77.6%) of in-scope care (total number of bed days) was provided by General services. Older person services accounted for 13.9% followed by Forensic (4.4%) and Child and adolescent (4.0%) services.
The highest rate of seclusion during 2020–21 was for Forensic services with 27.3 seclusion events per 1,000 bed days, followed by Child and adolescent services (9.5), General services (7.3) and Older person services (0.3). Forensic services show an increase in the rate of seclusion events between 2009–10 and 2020–21, whilst General, Child and adolescent and Older person services show reductions. However, year on year variability is seen for all target populations (Figure RP.4).
For physical restraint during 2020–21, the rate for Forensic services (59.9 events per 1,000 bed days) was more than twice that of Child and adolescent services (27.2) and over 6 times that of General services (9.2). The rate of mechanical restraint was also highest for Forensic services (Figure RP.4.1). For the period 2015–16 to 2020–21, the use of physical and mechanical restraint was more common for Forensic services than other service types.
Figure RP.4: Rates of seclusion (2008–09 to 2020–21) and restraint (2015–16 to 2020–21), by target population
Figure RP.4: Line graph showing seclusion events per 1,000 bed days for General, Child and adolescent, Older persons, and Forensic target populations, from 2008–09 to 2020–21. Refer to Table RP.6.
Figure RP.4.1: Line graph showing mechanical and physical restraint events per 1,000 bed days for General, Child and adolescent, Older persons, and Forensic target populations, from 2015–16 to 2020–21. Refer to Table RP.9.
Note: Queensland did not collect information on physical restraint events prior to 2017–18.
Source: National Seclusion and Restraint Database, Tables RP.6 and RP.9
Forensic services had the highest proportion of episodes of care involving seclusion events, with 21.9% of all mental health-related episodes involving at least one seclusion event during 2020–21. This was followed by General (3.7%), Child and adolescent (2.6%), and Older person (0.5%) services (Table RP.6). Forensic services also had the highest frequency of seclusion, with an average of 9.2 seclusion events per episode when seclusion was used at least once during an episode of care.
Seclusion events that occurred in Forensic services had the longest average duration of 21.2 hours per seclusion event. General services reported an average time of 5.5 hours per seclusion event, followed by Child and adolescent services (1.4 hours).
During 2020–21, hospitals located in Major cities had a seclusion rate of 7.6 events per 1,000 bed days. This rate was higher than Inner regional facilities (5.4), and lower than Outer regional and Remote area facilities which had the highest seclusion rate (8.9). Similarly, facilities located in Major cities had a higher proportion of care episodes with a seclusion event (3.7%) than Inner regional areas (3.0%) and lower than Outer regional and Remote areas (4.1%). Seclusion events in facilities in Major cities were of longer average duration (5.5 hours) than Inner regional (4.1 hours) and Outer regional and Remote areas (3.6 hours) (Table RP.7).
During 2020–21, hospitals located in Major cities had a physical restraint rate of 12.0 events per 1,000 bed days, and a mechanical restraint rate of 0.7. These rates were higher than for Inner regional facilities (8.8 physical restraint and 0.4 mechanical restraint). Outer regional and Remote area facilities had the highest physical restraint rate of 13.4 and the lowest mechanical restraint rate of 0.1 (Table RP.10).
Rates of seclusion, physical restraint and mechanical restraint are available for hospitals containing in-scope specialised acute mental health units (excluding forensic units). During 2020–21, the highest rates by hospital were 54.1 for physical restrain, 47.1 for seclusion and 4.7 for mechanical restraint. Of the 134 reported hospitals, 86 (64.2%) had a rate of zero for mechanical restraint, 20 (14.9%) had a rate of zero for seclusion, and 9 (6.7%) a rate of zero for physical restraint.
Rates are presented for all reported hospitals and states and territories in Figure RP.5; to select a specific hospital refer to Figure RP.5.1.
Figure RP.5: Horizontal bar chart showing seclusion and mechanical and physical restraint events per 1,000 bed days in 2020–21 by hospital, excluding forensic units. Refer to Table RP.11.
Figure RP.5.1: Interactive text display showing seclusion and mechanical and physical restraint events per 1,000 bed days for each hospital in 2020–21. The user is able to select a particular hospital to display. Refer to Table RP.11.
Source: National Seclusion and Restraint Database, Table RP.11
In Australia, all states and territories collect data regarding the use of restrictive practices in public acute mental health services. Data include the provision of mental health treatment to persons on an involuntary basis, and the use of seclusion and/or restraint, under state and territory mental health legislation.
Nationally in 2019–20 mental health care was provided to people on an involuntary basis during:
People in acute hospital care in Australia were secluded 12,371 times during 2020–21 for 5.2 hours on average (excluding Forensic services). This represents 7.3 events per 1,000 bed days. The national seclusion rate has nearly halved over the last decade.
Nationally, during 2020–21 there were 19,690 physical restraint events and 1,108 mechanical restraint events, representing 11.6 and 0.7 events per 1,000 bed days respectively. Over the last five years (since data coverage began), the national physical restraint rate has not changed much, while mechanical restraint has more than halved.
Data on involuntary treatment in both community and residential mental health care settings have been available for almost two decades. The use of seclusion and restraint in acute admitted mental health care settings (first reported in 2016) and involuntary treatment in acute and non-acute admitted mental health care settings (first reported in 2019) are more recent data initiatives.
The collection and improvement of data on the use of restrictive practices in Australian mental health care is an ongoing initiative. Annual reporting continues through cooperative efforts in the mental health data sector under national priority endeavours, particularly through coordinated work with state/territory mental health authorities.
We'd love to know any feedback that you have about the AIHW website, its contents or reports.
The browser you are using to browse this website is outdated and some features may not display properly or be accessible to you. Please use a more recent browser for the best user experience.