Data presented in the report and in the supplementary tables are mainly based on ‘clients’, with some data based on ‘support periods’ or ‘client groups’ (or ‘presenting units’ – which identify clients who present together to a specialist homelessness agency, including clients who present alone – and receive a service). Information on clients who are homeless, at risk of homelessness or part of a group of special interest, is mostly client-level data and information on agencies, unmet demand and trends data is predominantly support period data.
2021–22 data derivations
Homelessness status and other housing categories
All clients of specialist homelessness services are considered to be either homeless or at risk of homelessness. Homelessness and at risk status is determined by the specific criteria described below using 3 aspects of a client’s housing situation: dwelling type, housing tenure and their conditions of occupancy.
Clients are considered to be homeless if they are living in any of the following circumstances:
No shelter or improvised dwelling: includes where dwelling type is no dwelling/street/park/in the open, motor vehicle, improvised building/dwelling, caravan, cabin, boat or tent; or tenure type is renting or living rent-free in a caravan park
Short-term temporary accommodation: dwelling type is boarding/rooming house, emergency accommodation, hotel/motel/bed and breakfast; or tenure type is renting or living rent-free in boarding/rooming house, renting or living rent-free in emergency accommodation, or renting or living rent-free in transitional housing
House, townhouse or flat (couch surfing or with no tenure): dwelling type is House/townhouse/flat, and tenure type is no tenure or conditions of occupancy is couch surfing
Clients are considered to be at risk if they are living in any of the following circumstances:
Public or community housing (renter or rent free): dwelling type is house/townhouse/flat and tenure type is renter or rent-free in public housing, or renter or rent-free in community housing
Private or other housing (renter, rent-free or owner): dwelling type is house/townhouse/flat and tenure type is renter or rent free in private housing, life tenure scheme, owner – shared equity or rent/buy scheme, owner – being purchased/with mortgage, owner – fully owned, or other renter or rent free
Institutional settings: dwelling type is hospital, psychiatric hospital/unit, disability support, rehabilitation, boarding school/residential college, adult correctional facility, youth/juvenile justice correctional centre, aged care facility or immigration detention centre
Clients who did not provide any information regarding the 3 aspects of their housing situation are classified as 'not stated'.
In some cases, information about a client’s dwelling type, tenure and conditions of occupancy may be partially complete and therefore there is not enough information to assign a client to any of the specific housing situation criteria above. Where analysis and report content relates to these more detailed housing situation categories, those clients with incomplete information are grouped with other clients with missing data as 'other/not stated'.
However, there may be enough information to determine whether the client is broadly homeless or at risk, in which case the client will be assigned to either 'other – homeless' or 'other – at risk' for some analysis.
More specifically, those allocated to 'other – homeless' includes clients who stated that they have 'no tenure' or that they are a 'couch surfer'. Clients in the 'other – at risk' category are clients that have stated a response to at least one of the 3 aspects of their housing situation but there is not enough information to classify them as homeless.
Please see the footnotes for each table or figure to confirm the inclusion or exclusion of 'other' and 'not stated' categories.
The homeless and at-risk categories are designed to, as far as is possible, align with the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) statistical definition of homelessness (ABS 2016a). However, there are some key areas where alignment may not occur. The ABS definition includes people living in severely crowded dwellings and as no specific question on crowding is included in the SHSC, this group cannot be separately identified.
Also, the ABS exclude certain groups of people from the homeless count where they appear to have accommodation alternatives or where there is a clear choice about the type of accommodation (for example, people who are travelling, people returning from overseas, certain owner builder or hobby farmers, and students living in halls of residence). However, if people in these circumstances become clients of specialist homelessness agencies, they are included in the SHSC as either homeless or at risk of homelessness, depending on their reported housing situation.
A full comparison of the SHSC and ABS Census definitions of homelessness can be found in the AIHW technical paper on homelessness definitions.
The period of time a client receives services from a specialist homelessness agency is referred to as a support period. A support period starts on the day the client first receives a service and ends when:
the relationship between the client and the agency ends
the client has reached their maximum amount of support the agency can offer, or
a client has not received any services from the agency for a whole calendar month and there is no ongoing relationship.
The end of the support period is the day the client last received services from the agency.
Calculating total length of accommodation (and total length of support)
To calculate a client’s total length of accommodation for a given financial year, every night that the client received accommodation during the financial year is added together. For a client’s total length of support, every day of support received during the financial year is added together. This means that the total number of days/nights presented for clients does not necessarily represent a consecutive number of days/nights the client received support/accommodation. For example, a client who received accommodation for 7 nights may have had 2 separate periods of accommodation: 1 for 5 nights and another for 2 nights.
Agency remoteness area
Agencies have been classified according to their remoteness area (RA) as defined by the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) Remoteness Structure (ABS 2016b). The latest available version of the RA indicator (from the 2016 Census) has been developed by the ABS. The Remoteness Areas divide Australia into 5 classes of remoteness on the basis of relative access to services. Access to services is measured using the Accessibility and Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA+), developed by the Hugo Centre for Migration and Population Research at the University of Adelaide. ARIA+ is derived by measuring the road distance from a point to the nearest Urban Centres and Localities in 5 separate population ranges.
Using this classification, agencies participating in the SHSC were assigned to an RA based on their recorded state, suburb, postcode and/or Local Government Area (LGA) values. Where available, a combination of these fields was used to assign RA for a given agency to improve accuracy.
Clients have been assigned to a Statistical Area 2 (SA2) region based on where they lived in the week before presenting to a SHS agency. SA2s are defined by the 2016 Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS), developed by the ABS (ABS 2016c).
Clients are assigned to only one SA2, based on the location details (locality, postcode and state/territory) provided in the first support period active in the reference year. The first support period is defined as the earliest starting support period active in the financial year.
Where there are multiple support periods that meet this criteria (i.e. share the same start date), a support period is randomly selected as the first support period.
In 2021–22, approximately 9% of clients could not be assigned to a SA2 region due to missing or incomplete address information.
Correspondence files are then used to map SA2s to other geographies for reporting (SA3, SA4, Greater Capital City Statistical Areas, RA, state and territory, Primary Health Networks, and Local Government Areas).
Identifying and meeting service needs
Identifying clients' needs for a service
The SHSC collects information on the needs of clients during their period of support from a specialist homelessness agency. Needs may be identified by the client and/or the service provider. Although this information is collected at the beginning of a support period, updated at the end of each month a client is supported and again at the end of each support period, each individual need is only recorded once in any collection month. For these analyses, a client’s need for a service is recorded if the client needed that service at any time in 2021–22. For example, a client is recorded as needing short-term accommodation if they were recorded as needing short-term accommodation in any collection month of 2021–22, regardless of the number of months over which this need was recorded, or the number of times during 2021–22 they presented with this need.
Meeting clients’ service needs
There are several aspects to analysing the extent to which clients’ needs for assistance are met. The first is to analyse the services provided to a client directly by the specialist homelessness agency. Where agencies are unable to provide services directly to clients or unable to fully meet the need, they often refer the client to other organisations (either other specialist homelessness agencies or other organisations) that can provide those services. This referral information is also collected in the SHSC and is considered an important form of assistance that agencies provide, although it is not possible to know if these referrals resulted in the provision of services.
All information on services that are provided, whether referred or not, are recorded in the same way as service needs. That is, a service is recorded as provided if the client was provided that type of assistance at any time in 2021–22.
In some circumstances, an agency will not be able to either provide required services directly to clients, or refer them to another organisation – this is considered to be an unmet need.
The data does not capture instances of unmet need where a client needs a particular service (for example, long-term housing) and is provided it, then needs the same service once again in a subsequent support period during the financial year but is not provided it. As clients are flagged if they ever needed, were provided, and/or were referred for a service in 2021–22, in these situations, the client will be counted as needing a particular service during the financial year, and that it was provided.
Further information about unmet needs can be found in the Unmet demand section of the report.
A client is considered as Indigenous if, in any support period in 2021–22, they identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin.
In the SHSC, information on Indigenous status is only provided with explicit client consent to report this information. Indigenous status was not reported for 5.9% of clients in 2021–22.
Clients born overseas
A client is identified as overseas-born, if in the majority of support periods in 2021–22, they identified that their country of birth was a country other than Australia.
In the SHSC, information on country of birth is only provided with explicit client consent to report this information. Country of birth information was not reported for 6.9% of clients in 2021–22.
Young people presenting alone
Young people are defined as clients aged 15–24 who presented alone in their first support period in the reporting period.
The age of the client is defined as the client’s age on the start date of their first support period in the reporting period. For those who were existing clients at the beginning of the reporting period, the client’s age on the first day of the reporting period is used.
Older people are defined as clients aged 55 or older.
The age of the client is defined as their age on the start date of their first support period in the reporting period. For those who were existing clients at the beginning of the reporting period, the client’s age on the first day of the reporting period is used.
Clients who experienced family and domestic violence
SHSC clients were counted as experiencing family and domestic violence (FDV) if any support period during the reporting period:
The client was formally referred from a non-SHS FDV agency to a SHS agency, or
'family and domestic violence' was reported as a reason they sought assistance, or
during any support period they required family or domestic violence assistance.
Note: The option for including clients formally referred from a non-SHS FDV agency was introduced on 1 July 2019 and only applies to support periods starting on or after this date.
Clients with a current mental health issue
A client was identified as having a current mental health issue if they are aged 10 years or older and have provided any of the following information in any support period during the reporting period:
They reported 'mental health issues' as a reason for seeking assistance.
At some stage during their support period, a need was identified for psychological services, psychiatric services or mental health services (as determined by a need for such services being recorded for the client, a relevant service being provided to the client and/or the client being referred for such a service).
Their formal referral source to the specialist homelessness agency was a mental health service.
They indicated they were receiving services or assistance for their mental health issues or had in the last 12 months.
They had been in a psychiatric hospital or unit in the last 12 months.
Their dwelling type either a week before presenting to an agency, or when presenting to an agency, was a psychiatric hospital or unit.
Two of the questions (the time period client has received assistance for mental health issue and facilities/institutions in last 12 months) used to identify whether SHS clients have a current mental health issue are consent items in the SHSC. Some clients with current mental health issues may not have been identified as such because they have not given consent for this information to be provided to the AIHW.
Clients on care and protection orders
A client is identified as being under a care or protection order if they are aged under 18 and have provided any of the following information in any support period (any month within the support period) during the reporting period (either the week before, at the beginning of the support period or during support):
They reported that they were under a care and protection order and that they had the following care arrangements: residential care, family group home, relatives/kin/friends who are reimbursed, foster care, other home-based care (reimbursed), relatives/kin/friends who are not reimbursed, independent living, other living arrangements, parents, or
They have reported 'Transition from foster care/child safety residential placements' as a reason for seeking assistance, or main reason for seeking assistance.
The first question above is a consent item in the SHSC. Some clients on care and protection orders may not have been identified as such as they have not given consent for this information to be provided to the AIHW.
Clients with problematic drug and/or alcohol use
A client is identified as having problematic drug and/or alcohol use if they were aged 10 years or older and have provided any of the following information either at the beginning of support or in any support period during the reporting period (either the week before or at beginning of the support period):
Their dwelling type was recorded as rehabilitation.
Their formal referral source to the specialist homelessness agency was a drug and alcohol service.
During their support they required drug/alcohol counselling.
They have been in a rehabilitation facility/institution in the last 12 months.
They have reported 'problematic drug or substance abuse' or 'problematic alcohol use' as a reason for seeking assistance or main reason for seeking assistance.
One of the questions (facilities/institutions in last 12 months) used to identify whether SHS clients have problematic drug and/or alcohol use is a consent item in the SHSC. Some clients with problematic drug and/or alcohol use may not have been identified as such because they have not given consent for this information to be provided to the AIHW.
Clients leaving care
Clients are identified as transitioning from care arrangements if, in their first support period during the reporting period, either in the week before or at presentation:
The dwelling type was: hospital (excluding psychiatric), psychiatric hospital or unit, disability support, rehabilitation or aged care facility, or
One of their reasons for seeking assistance was transition from foster care/child safety residential placements or transition from other care arrangements.
Clients who were exiting custodial arrangements
Clients are identified as transitioning from a custodial setting if they are aged 10 years or older and if, in their first support period during the reporting period, either in the week before or at presentation:
their dwelling type was: adult correctional facility, youth or juvenile justice correctional centre or immigration detention centre or
their reason for seeking assistance was: transition from custodial arrangements or
their source of formal referral to the agency was: youth or juvenile justice correctional centre, or adult correctional facility.
Some of these clients were still in custody at the time they began receiving support.
New and returning clients
New clients are defined as clients who have received a service from a SHSC agency in the financial year for the first time, having never received support in any previous year. Returning clients are defined as clients who have received a service from a SHSC agency in the financial year plus at least one previous year since July 2011. This measure provides contextual information about service use patterns of clients across time.
Unassisted requests for services
Unassisted requests for services provide a measure of the number of instances where a person received no immediate services from a specialist homelessness agency. It is not a measure of the number of people who did not receive services from an agency. Numbers exclude multiple requests from the same person (at any agency) on the same day, but may include requests from the same person (at any agency) on different days.
The data are presented as a daily average of requests for services because the information that is used to create the SLK was not available for 47% of the unmet requests for service in 2021–22. Without a valid SLK, it is not possible to identify whether a person requested the same service more than once from the same agency or from different agencies on different days. Similarly, people who received services at a later date, thus becoming clients, cannot be identified where a valid SLK is not available.
Over recent years, a number of jurisdictions have made changes to services delivery models and in particular toward central intake service delivery models. In practice, these systems often require agency workers to provide assistance of some kind to all presenting individuals. Therefore, caution should be used when comparing data over time and between states and territories, particularly data relating to unassisted requests.