Caution: Some people may find parts of this content confronting or distressing.
Please carefully consider your needs when reading the following information about suicide and self-harm. If this material raises concerns for you contact Lifeline on 13 11 14, or see other ways you can seek help.
The information included here places an emphasis on data, and as such, can appear to depersonalise the pain and loss behind the statistics. The AIHW acknowledges the individuals, families and communities affected by suicide each year in Australia.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander readers are advised that information relating to Indigenous suicide and self-harm is included.
The AIHW supports the use of the Mindframe guidelines on responsible, accurate and safe suicide and self-harm reporting. Please consider these guidelines when reporting on statistics on the monitoring of suicide and self-harm.
Numbers and rates of deaths by suicide change over time as social, economic and environmental factors influence suicide risk. The data visualisations below provide an overview of the characteristics of people who have died by suicide in Australia since 1907, looking at trends and variations by sex and age – how many there were, how old they were when they died, and the methods used over time. This analysis may provide useful information on potentially preventable factors, such as restricting access to means of suicide and reducing the risks posed by social or economic factors. Over time, the accuracy and quality of the data collected have been influenced by a number of factors including changes in legislation, technology and a reduction in social stigma.
Suicide deaths by sex, Australia, 1907 to 2021.
The line graph shows age-standardised rates of suicide for males, females and persons from 1907 to 2021. Users can also choose to view the number of deaths by suicide and male to female rate ratios from 1907 to 2021 and median age at death by sex from 1964 to 2021. The data can be viewed for any period between the years for which data are available.
Numbers of deaths by suicide increased steadily over the first half of the 20th Century (from 461 in 1907 to 760 in 1950), with peaks and troughs in numbers of suicides corresponding with significant world events (see below). However, since the 1950s numbers of deaths by suicide increased more steeply over time – in part driven by population growth. Peaks in numbers of deaths by suicide occurred during the 1960s and late 1990s. Since the mid-2000s numbers of deaths by suicide in Australia have increased, reaching over 3,000 Australians dying by suicide by 2015.
Between 1907 and 2021, age-standardised suicide rates in Australia ranged from 8.4 deaths per 100,000 population per year (in 1943 and 1944) to 18.4 in 1963.
It is important to note that deaths by suicide were underestimated in the collection of routine deaths data, particularly in the years before 2006 (AIHW: Harrison et al 2009; De Leo, 2010; AIHW: Harrison & Henley 2015). Since then, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) has introduced a revisions process to improve data quality by enabling the revision of cause of death for open coroner’s cases over time. Deaths registered in 2020 and 2021 are preliminary and data for 2019 are revised and therefore, data for these years are subject to further revision by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Data from 1907 to 2018 are final (for further information see Technical notes).
Please note: small numbers can result in large yearly variation in suicide rates. Caution is advised when making year to year comparisons.
For detailed analysis of recent trends in suicide in Australia, see Suicide Mortality in Australia: Estimating and Projecting Monthly Variation and Trends From 2007 to 2018 and Beyond.
While the reasons for an individual’s suicide death are personal and often complex, overall peaks and troughs in rates and numbers of deaths by suicide historically coincide – more or less – with social and economic events.
Falls in the male suicide rate coincided with both World Wars 1 and 2. These falls are at least partly a statistical artefact due to the fact that deaths from all causes (including deaths by suicide) of Australian service personnel while overseas were not included in Australian death registration data, while population estimates were not adjusted to allow for the absence of these personnel (AIHW 2005; AIHW: Harrison & Henley 2014).
The highest annual age-standardised rate for males in the last century occurred in 1930 (29.8 deaths per 100,000 population), during the Great Depression – a period of high unemployment, particularly among males. The rise in both male and female suicide rates in the 1960s has been attributed, in part, to the unrestricted availability of barbiturate sedatives (Oliver & Hetzel 1972; Whitlock 1975). Subsequent falls in these rates in the late 1960s and early 1970s have in turn been attributed to the introduction of restrictions to the availability of these drugs in July 1967 (AIHW: Harrison & Henley 2014). While high rates of suicide in the late 1980s and early 1990s also coincided with a period of economic uncertainty in Australia, the social and economic disruption related to the COVID-19 pandemic has not seen an increase in the number of suspected deaths by suicide referred to coroners courts.
Since 1907, the male age-standardised suicide rate has been consistently higher and more variable than the female rate. Variations in the overall suicide rate in Australia have been largely driven by changes in the male suicide rate.
The peak in overall suicide rates in 1930 was driven by an increase in male suicide rates, peaking at 29.8 deaths per 100,000 in 1930 – the highest rate ever recorded. Similarly, the increase in overall suicide rates in the 1990s was also mainly driven by an increase in male rates. The peak in the 1960s reflects a rise in suicide rates for both males and females.
The male suicide rate ranged from a high of 5.6 times that of females in 1930 to lows of less than twice the female rate in the 1960s and early 1970s – mainly due to the marked rise in female suicide rates at this time. Since then, the male suicide rate has fluctuated around 3–4 times that of the female rate.
Although males are more likely to die by suicide, females are hospitalised for intentional self-harm (with and without suicidal intent) almost twice as frequently as males (see Intentional self-harm hospitalisations). Furthermore, ambulance attendance data reporting on attendances for suicide attempts between 2018 and 2020 suggest females are more likely to attempt suicide than males (see Ambulance attendances, suicidal and self-harm behaviours).
Age-specific suicide rates for males are higher than those for females across all reported age groups for all years. Use the year slider to see how patterns of suicide in males and females have changed in Australia over time. Hover over the graph to display the tooltip to see the trend in deaths by suicide by sex over time for each age group. The age distribution of deaths by suicide is similar for males and females. The highest proportion of deaths by suicide occur during mid-life. More than half of all deaths by suicide (53%) in 2021 occurred in people aged 30–59 (1,653 deaths), compared with 22% for those aged 15–29, and 25% for those aged 60 and over.
In 2021, the highest suicide rate for males occurred in those aged 85 and over (36.4 deaths per 100,000 population); however, the number of deaths by suicide recorded for this age group is the lowest (76 deaths). High rates of suicide were also recorded in males aged 50–54 and 80–84 (26.9 and 31.2 respectively). Males aged between 40–54 accounted for one quarter (25%) of deaths by suicide by males. The highest suicide rate for females was in those aged 50–54 (9.5 deaths per 100,000 population) accounting for the highest proportion of deaths by suicide for females (10.2%).
Suicide deaths by age and sex, Australia, 2021.
The bar chart shows the age-specific rates of suicide for males and females by age groups (five year age bands from 15–19, 20–24, etc to 80-84 and 85 and over). Users can choose to view numbers of deaths by suicide for males and females in these age groups. Data can also be viewed by year from 1907.
For approximately the first half of the period 1907 to 2021, age-specific suicide rates in males generally increased with age; however, by the start of the 1990s this pattern had changed substantially with suicide rates highest in younger males aged 20–39 and males aged 80 and over. Since 2008, the highest suicide rates have been observed in middle-aged males (aged 40–49) and older males aged 85 and over; however, it should be noted that rates of death by suicide in males aged 85 and over have historically been based on relatively small numbers compared to other age groups and as such, the rates can be quite volatile over time and should be interpreted with caution.
Throughout 1907 to 2021, the lowest suicide rates in males were observed in those aged 15–19.
From 1907 to 1970, suicide rates in males aged 15–19 were less than 10 deaths per 100,000 population. Rates then increased throughout the 1970s and 1980s peaking at 21.0 in 1988, while still remaining the lowest of the reported age groups.
In 2021, the suicide rate for males aged 15–19 was 13.1 deaths per 100,000 population.
Males aged 20–24 had the second-lowest age-specific suicide rates of all males for most of the 20th Century; however, this changed from the late 1960s.
A similar pattern was observed for those aged 25–29.
The pattern of age-specific suicide rates for middle-aged males (aged 40–59) was different to that of younger age groups, with the highest rates being observed in the first part of the 20th Century and then falling to lower levels.
A similar pattern was seen in males aged 60 and older. It should be noted that the number of deaths by suicide recorded for older males historically has been low, particularly for males aged 75 and older. This causes fluctuation in the age-specific rates. Therefore, caution should be used when interpreting trends for these age groups over time.
Age-specific suicide rates for females showed comparatively little variation over time – except for a peak in multiple age groups during the 1960s.
Understanding the methods used for suicide can play an important role in suicide prevention. These data are provided to inform discussion around restriction of access to means as a policy intervention for the prevention of suicide.
Please consider your need to read the following information. If this material raises concerns for you or if you need immediate assistance, please contact a crisis support service, available free of charge, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Please consider the Mindframe guidelines if reporting on these statistics.
The pattern of methods used for suicide has changed greatly, sometimes rapidly, over the last century as new methods have become available or as restrictions to the availability of some methods have been introduced. The methods of suicide used by males and females differed over the period 1907 to 2021; however, as males account for the majority of deaths by suicide the methods used by males have a greater influence on the overall pattern than the methods used by females.
The classification system used to code causes of deaths data, ICD-10, uses the term ‘mechanism’ to refer to the external cause of death. Throughout Suicide & self-harm monitoring ‘mechanism’ has been used in data visualisations, while the term ‘method’ has been used in the accompanying text.
Suicide deaths by sex and mechanism, Australia, 1907 to 2021.
The line graph shows age-standardised suicide rates by mechanism for poisons, gas, firearms, hanging and other mechanisms from 1907 to 2021. Users can also choose to view age-standardised rates and numbers of deaths by suicide, by sex and mechanism (including all mechanisms) from 1907 to 2021 and median age at death by sex and mechanism from 1964 to 2021. The data can be viewed for any period between the years for which data are available.
Hanging (ICD-10 X70) has become the most common method of suicide in Australia and use of this method increased substantially over the last 25 years. Age-standardised rates of suicide by hanging remain much higher for males than females, but have increased for both sexes.
Use of firearms (ICD-10 X72–X75) was the most common method of suicide for males from 1907 to the late-1980s.
In the 1920s, poisoning by gas (ICD-10 X67), largely due to carbon monoxide poisoning, became a new method of suicide in Australia with the introduction of the domestic gas supply and the motor vehicle to Australia.
Exposure to poisonous substances excluding gas (ICD-10 X60–X66, X68–X69) was the most common method of suicide for females from 1907 until 1997.
Age-standardised rates for suicides by other methods (ICD-10 X71, X76–X84, Y87.0) are only available from 1964.
AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2005. Mortality over the twentieth century in Australia: trends and patterns in major causes of death. Mortality surveillance series no. 4. Cat. no. PHE 73. Canberra: AIHW.
AIHW: Harrison JE, Pointer S and Elnour AA 2009. A review of suicide statistics in Australia. Cat. no. INJCAT 121. Canberra: AIHW.
AIHW: Harrison JE & Henley G 2014. Suicide and hospitalised self-harm in Australia: trends and analysis. Injury research and statistics series no. 93. Cat. no. INJCAT 169. Canberra: AIHW.
AIHW: Harrison JE & Henley G 2015. Injury deaths data, Australia: technical report on issues associated with reporting for reference years 1999–2010. Injury research and statistics series no. 94. Cat. no. INJCAT 170. Canberra: AIHW.
Oliver R & Hetzel R 1973. An analysis of recent trends in suicide rates in Australia. International Journal of Epidemiology 2(1):91–101.
Whitlock F 1975. Suicide in Brisbane, 1956 to 1973: the drug-death epidemic. Medical Journal of Australia 1(24):737–43.
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