Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2022) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander specific primary health care: results from the nKPI and OSR collections, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 03 July 2022.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2022). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander specific primary health care: results from the nKPI and OSR collections. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/indigenous-australians/indigenous-primary-health-care-results-osr-nkpi
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander specific primary health care: results from the nKPI and OSR collections. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 10 June 2022, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/indigenous-australians/indigenous-primary-health-care-results-osr-nkpi
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander specific primary health care: results from the nKPI and OSR collections [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2022 [cited 2022 Jul. 3]. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/indigenous-australians/indigenous-primary-health-care-results-osr-nkpi
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2022, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander specific primary health care: results from the nKPI and OSR collections, viewed 3 July 2022, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/indigenous-australians/indigenous-primary-health-care-results-osr-nkpi
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This page contains general information to aid in interpreting nKPI data. Further information relevant to both collections is provided on the main Technical notes page.
This page contains general information to aid interpretation of nKPI data. This should be used in conjunction with additional information contained in:
The national Key Performance Indicators (nKPI) collection is a set of process-of-care and health-status indicators organised under three domains (Table 1).
PI13: First antenatal visit
PI02: Birthweight result
PI01: Birthweight recorded
PI11: Smoking during pregnancy
PI03: Indigenous health assessment—aged 0–14
PI09: Smoking status recorded
PI10: Smoking status result
PI16: Alcohol consumption recorded
PI12: BMI classified as overweight or obese
PI03: Indigenous health assessment—aged 15 and over
PI17: AUDIT-C result
PI20: CVD risk assessment recorded
PI21: CVD risk assessment result
PI07: Chronic Disease Management Plan—type 2 diabetes
PI24: Blood pressure result—type 2 diabetes
PI23: Blood pressure recorded—type 2 diabetes
PI06: HbA1c result—type 2 diabetes
PI05: HbA1c result recorded—type 2 diabetes
PI19-A: Kidney function test eGFR result—type 2 diabetes or CVD
PI18: Kidney function test recorded—type 2 diabetes or CVD
PI19-B: Kidney function test result ACR result—type 2 diabetes
PI15: Immunised against influenza—type 2 diabetes or COPD
Note: From December 2021, changes were made to one indicator (PI12), two indicators were not collected while modifications are made (PI18 and PI19) and one indicator was retired (PI15).
In this report, where there are small numbers of reporting organisations in a state or territory, data are presented combined with another state or territory. This is the case for Tasmania (presented combined with Victoria) and the Australian Capital Territory (presented combined with New South Wales).
Not all organisations in-scope to report data to the nKPI collection do so. This varies by period (Table 2).
In-scope to report data
Participation rate (%)
For the organisations that do report data, particular data items may be excluded from analysis if data quality issues have not been resolved (Table 3). The major reasons for data not being provided or organisations having data quality problems include a lack of complete records of data held by the organisation, insufficient data management resources at organisations to support the data collection, organisations not providing the service for which the indicator collects information, and problems with the electronic transfer of data extracted from organisations’ CIS. Changes to the data extraction process were a major reason for organisations having data quality issues in their original submission from June 2017 to June 2018.
Number of organisations with unresolved issues
Total number of organisations that reported data
Organisations with unresolved issues (%)
In addition to unresolved internal validation issues, some indicators are excluded from analysis where the organisation’s data do not meet the regular client definition (for example because they were a new organisation or they had changed to a new CIS) or where issues were identified with a particular CIS. This varies by period and by data item. For example:
Data from earlier collections are not comparable with data from June 2017 onwards. For the June 2017 collection, changes were made to the electronic data extraction method for most organisations that resulted in a break in series. For more information see AIHW 2018.
From December 2015 onwards, organisations funded by the Northern Territory Government changed the way in which data were extracted so that only tests or measurements conducted at the reporting organisation were counted.
There are variations between CIS and how each capture and extract results, in general and also between periods. For example, the PI09 smoking status recorded and PI10 smoking status result indicators specify that if a record does not have an assessment date assigned within the CIS, the record should be treated as current (that is, as having been updated within the previous 24 months). Whether the CIS capture all results or only those results updated within the previous 24 months varies between CIS. In particular, in June 2021, some CIS modified the inclusions for these indicators. The full impact of this has not been quantified but resulted in large decreases for some organisations between December 2020 and June 2021.
Indicator specifications may be revised over time (for example, to reflect the latest clinical and best-practice guidelines). In particular, in 2020, in response to issues identified during the AIHW’s Review of the two national Indigenous specific primary health care datasets: OSR and nKPI, all indicators current as of June 2020 underwent a review by a clinical and technical working group sitting under, and convened by, the (Indigenous) Health Services Data Advisory Group (HS DAG). As a result, HS DAG approved a series of changes to the indicators to be rolled out progressively during 2020–21.
Key changes to indicators over time include:
Data from a small number of organisations that received funding only for maternal and child health services (MCH organisations) are included in the nKPI data presented in this report unless otherwise noted.
While MCH organisations are generally excluded from the OSR data presented in this report (see Interpreting OSR data), they are included in the nKPI data. This is because a subset of indicators applies directly to the MCH funded programs and the aims of these programs are considered similar to the aims of antenatal/early childhood care delivered within organisations funded for primary health care.
Prior to June 2019, because MCH organisations were not limited to reporting only on the maternal and child health indicators, a small number also reported against other indicators (like alcohol or BMI).
AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) (2018) National Key Performance Indicators for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care: results for 2017, National key performance indicators for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care series no. 5, Cat. no. IHW 200, Canberra: AIHW.
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