Labour and birth

This section looks at key aspects of the labour and birthing process, including the onset of labour, place of birth, method of birth, Robson classification of caesarean sections, analgesia and anaesthesia administration, presentation and perineal status.

Place of birth

Place of birth includes births that occurred in hospitals, birth centres and at home.

Onset of labour

Onset of labour refers to the manner in which labour started. Labour can occur spontaneously or may be induced by medical or surgical intervention.

Method of birth

Method of birth refers to how the baby was delivered, this may be vaginally or by caesarean section.


Analgesia is used to relieve pain during labour.


Anaesthesia is used to relieve pain during operative delivery, that is, a caesarean section or instrumental vaginal birth.


Presentation refers to the anatomical part of the baby that is facing down the birth canal at birth.

Perineal status

Perineal status refers to the state of the perineum following vaginal birth.