Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2021. Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia. Cat. no. PHE 221. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 17 October 2021, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2021). Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia
Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 24 September 2021, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2021 [cited 2021 Oct. 17]. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2021, Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia, viewed 17 October 2021, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia
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The National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) collects information on alcohol and tobacco consumption, and illicit drug use among the general population in Australia. It also surveys people’s attitudes and perceptions relating to tobacco, alcohol and other drug use. The 2019 NDSHS survey was the 13th conducted under the National Drug Strategy. The survey was first undertaken in 1985 and has been undertaken every 3 years since 1995. Key quality issues to consider for the collection include:
View the full data quality statement for the NDSHS 2019 >
The Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Data Set (AODTS NMDS) is based on closed episodes of treatment provided to clients by alcohol and other drug treatment services. All in-scope service agencies are publicly funded through state, territory or Australian government programs. Key quality issues to consider for the collection include:
View the full data quality statement for the AODTS NMDS 2019–20 >
Data for each reporting period are first released as key findings. This is followed by the detailed findings report. As such, not all data on alcohol and other drug treatment services will be updated at the same time.
The main purpose of the NOPSAD collection is to aggregate standardised jurisdictional data on the number of clients accessing pharmacotherapy for the treatment of opioid dependence, the number of prescribers participating in the delivery of pharmacotherapy treatment, and quantitative information about the prescribing sector. Key quality issues to consider for the collection include:
Unit record data were provided by all jurisdictions except Victoria and Queensland.
View the full data quality statement for the 2020 NOPSAD >
This web report contains results from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) National Health Survey (NHS) 2017–18, collected between July 2017 to June 2018.
The 2017–18 NHS is the most recent in a series of Australia-wide health surveys conducted by the ABS. It was designed to collect a range of information about the health of Australians, including:
The 2017–18 NHS collected data on children and adults living in private dwellings but excluded persons living in non-private dwellings, Very remote areas and discrete Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.
Data for the daily smoking prevalence for 2017–18 were based on the National Health Survey: First Results, 2017–18. Subsequently, the NHS dataset was weighted to produce smoking data consistent with the pooled Smoker Status dataset. Proportions calculated from both datasets will match, however the estimates will differ between the files. The ABS recommends using the pooled data estimates for reporting where this is possible. For more information, please refer to the National Health Survey Users' Guide 2017-18, particularly the Smoking section under Health risk factors. The Smoker Status data is referred to in that document as the National Health Survey And Survey of Income and Housing dataset (NHIH).
For further information, refer to the ABS National Health Survey: First Results, 2017–18.
View the full data quality statement for the NHS 2017–18 >
The 2014–15 NATSISS was conducted throughout Australia, including Remote areas, from September 2014 to June 2015.
View the full data quality statement for the 2014–15 NATSISS >
The 2012-13 AATSIHS was conducted throughout Australia in Remote and Non-remote areas from April 2012 to February 2013. The 2012-13 AATSIHS collected information on a range of demographics from over 9,000 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of all ages.
The scope of the survey was all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who were usual residents of private dwellings in Australia. Private dwellings are houses, flats, home units and any other structures used as private places of residence at the time of the survey. People usually resident in non-private dwellings, such as hotels, motels, hostels, hospitals, nursing homes, and short-stay caravan parks were not in scope. Usual residents are those who usually live in a particular dwelling and regard it as their own or main home.
The 2012–13 AATSIHS was designed to produce reliable estimates at the national level and for each state and territory. For selected states and territories, that is New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, the sample for children aged 0–14 years and persons aged 15 years and over was allocated to produce estimates that have a relative standard error (RSE) of no greater than 25% for characteristics that at least 5% of these populations would possess.
The 2012–13 AATSIHS contains information from the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (AATSIHS) core sample of around 12,900 people (a combined data file of both the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS) and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NATSINPAS) for people aged 2 years and over).
Further information on the AATHIHS >
The 2018–19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS) was conducted between July 2018 and April 2019. It collected information from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of all ages in Non-remote and Remote areas of Australia, including discrete Indigenous communities.
The NATSIHS collected data on a broad range of health-related topics, language, cultural identification, education, labour force status, income and discrimination. Information on a number of topics was collected for the first time, including mental health conditions, medications, consumption of sugar sweetened and diet drinks, experiences of harm and a hearing test.
The scope of the survey was all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in private dwellings. The following people were not included in the survey:
The overall coverage of the 2018–19 NATSIHS was approximately 33% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in Australia (based on 10,579 fully responding persons).
Further information on the NATSIHS 2018–19 >
Statistics presented in Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0) are sourced from death registrations administered by the various state and territory Registrars of Births, Deaths and Marriages. It is a legal requirement of each state and territory that all deaths are registered. In addition, the ABS supplements this data with information from the National Coronal Information System (NCIS) for those deaths certified by a coroner.
Deaths are considered “drug induced” if directly attributable to drug use (e.g. drug overdose), and “drug related” where drugs played a contributory factor (e.g. traffic accidents).
In Australia, acute drug overdose deaths are referred to a coroner and subject to forensic pathology and toxicology. Autopsy and toxicology reports provide detailed drug information including the identification of specific drugs in the system, approximate levels of drugs in the system and the relatedness of drugs to the death. The ABS accesses this information via the NCIS and applies codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, to the medical text for tabulation into statistical output.
Further information on Causes of deaths, Australia >
The Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) is a national illicit drug monitoring system intended to identify emerging trends of local and national concern in illicit drug markets. The IDRS consists of annual interviews across all Australian jurisdictions with people who inject drugs (PWID), as well as analysis and examination of indicator data sources related to illicit drugs.
Further information on the IDRS >
The Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) is a national monitoring system for ecstasy and related drugs that is intended to identify emerging trends of local and national interest in the markets for these drugs. The EDRS is based on the IDRS methodology and consists of 3 components: interviews with regular ecstasy and psychostimulant users; interviews with key experts, professionals who have regular contact with regular recreational users through their work; and analysis and examination of indicator data sources related to ecstasy and other related drugs. The EDRS monitors the price, purity, availability and patterns of use of ecstasy, methamphetamine, cocaine, new psychoactive substances, ketamine, and LSD.
In 2020, interviews were completed from April to July via phone or videoconference (instead of face-to-face) to manage risks associated with COVID-19. The interviews were held after the introduction of restrictions in Australia. This should be taken into account when comparing data between 2020 and previous years.
Further information on the EDRS >
The method underlying wastewater based monitoring of drug use in a given population is based on the principle that any given compound that is consumed (irrespective of whether it is swallowed, inhaled/smoked or injected) will subsequently be excreted (either in the chemical form it is consumed and/or in a chemically modified form that is referred to as a metabolite). The excreted compound or metabolite will eventually arrive in the sewer system.
Collectively, waste products in the sewer system arrive at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) where wastewater samples are collected over a defined sampling period. Measuring the amount of target compound in the wastewater stream allows for a back-calculation factor to be applied to determine the amount of drug that was used over the collection period. The method is non-invasive and is done on a population-scale level, so individuals are not targeted and privacy is respected.
Wastewater consists of highly complex mixtures that derive from toilets, bathrooms, kitchen and laundry appliances, as well as all other domestic, industrial or commercial plumbed structures. To obtain an estimate of drug use, representative samples are collected over a given period (typically 24 hours) using autosamplers that collect time or flow proportional samples. WWTP operators provide assistance with collecting the samples from the influent autosampler (where the wastewater enters the treatment plants). Pertinent information on the volume of wastewater entering the WWTP (flow volume) that is associated with a given sample is also collected by local operators. It should be noted that rain events may, for example, cause an increase in the volume of wastewater that enters a treatment plant but providing that the flow volume is available for each sampling period, this will not affect the overall estimate of the amount of drugs that has been used by the population that contributed to this wastewater.
The study focuses on 12 licit and illicit drugs, including nicotine from tobacco (including cigarettes, e-cigarettes, gum and patches), ethanol from alcohol intake, pharmaceutical opioids with abuse potential, illicit substances such as methylamphetamine, MDMA and cocaine.
The measurement of cannabis consumption was included for the first time in the August 2018 collection. It should be noted that the specific marker for cannabis consumption, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is excreted in extremely small amounts and detection is affected by surface adsorption. Sewer design and collection method may influence the levels detected and samples must be preserved to avoid degradation, without using acidification. This is one reason why cannabis consumption is not reported on a regular basis in other countries where wastewater analysis is routinely conducted (as acidification is a common preservation technique). For the National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program (NWDMP), separate samples are collected each day and preserved specifically for analysis.
Cannabis was not included in the comparison of the highest consumed drugs as there is variation in dose sizes and using an averaged dose was not deemed appropriate for the purposes of the study. The dose of cannabis depends on several factors, such as the part of the plant, strain, or whether an extract was used. This will be included when an appropriate dose becomes available.
Ketamine was included in monitoring from December 2020. The amount of ketamine excreted following consumption is not known. Therefore, results for ketamine are reported as the amount (mg) of drug excreted per day per 1,000 people.
One of the limitations of the NWDMP is that it cannot differentiate between the medical and non-medical use of pharmaceutical drugs such as oxycodone and fentanyl. In addition, the measurement of tobacco uses 2 nicotine metabolites. Wastewater analysis cannot distinguish between nicotine intake from tobacco or e-cigarettes and nicotine replacement products (such as gums and patches). As such, it is important that other data sources such as general population and sentinel surveys are also used to estimate the consumption of licit and illicit drugs. As a collective, these data inform our understanding of drug markets and how we can best respond to reduce supply, demand and harm.
A number of factors may influence interpretations of the results, including uncertainties in population estimates in an area over a 24-hour period due to work movements etc. and the variation in excretion rates (i.e. some people may metabolise a drug faster than others).
Fifty-seven wastewater treatment sites participated nationally in the December 2020 collection (20 sites were located in capital cities and 37 in regional locations) covering 56% of the Australian population, which equates to about 13.1 million people.
For the comparison of NWDMP wastewater data with international data from the Sewage Core Group Europe (SCORE), Australian data were taken from the December 2019 collection of the NWDMP. Data for all other countries were listed in the SCORE wastewater report for March 2019. SCORE data (measured raw loads in sewers) was converted to doses using the same method as for the NWDMP data.
SCORE data has several key limitations. Some countries that have been otherwise identified as having reasonably high methamphetamine consumption (e.g., parts of Asia and the Americas) do not participate in the SCORE study. Further, the SCORE report often includes data from only a single site per country and is unlikely to be representative of drug use in that country as a whole.
This report brings together illicit drug data from a variety of sources including law enforcement, forensic services, health and academia. Data used to inform the Illicit Drug Data Report is provided by all Australian state and territory police agencies, the Australian Federal Police, the Department of Home Affairs, Australian Border Force, the Australian Institute of Criminology and forensic laboratories. Data collected and presented in the report includes arrest, detection seizure, purity, profiling and price data. The statistics and analysis in the report are primarily used in to inform understanding of the Australian illicit drug market and the development of drug supply and harm reduction strategies.
The Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA) program is an ongoing illicit drug use monitoring program that captures information on police detainees across 5 locations throughout Australia annually. In 2020, 1,754 detainees participated in the DUMA program. There are 2 core components involved in the DUMA program:
The AIHW National Mortality Database (NMD) contains information supplied by the registrars of Births, Deaths and Marriages and the National Coronial Information System—and coded by the ABS—for deaths from 1964 to 2019. Registration of deaths is the responsibility of each state and territory Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages. These data are then collated and coded by the ABS and are maintained at the AIHW in the NMD.
As part of the National Suicide and Self-harm Monitoring Project the AIHW funded the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) to identify and code (using ICD-10) psychosocial risk factors for deaths referred to a coroner, including drug-induced deaths. Following on from a pilot study (ABS 2019), the ABS reviewed and coded psychosocial risk factors through a review of police, toxicology and pathology reports and coronial findings held by the National Coronial Information System. Psychosocial risk factors, now included in the National Mortality Database, are defined as social processes and social structures which can have an interaction with individual thought, behaviour and/or health outcomes (ABS 2019). See the Technical notes for the list of ICD-10 codes used for reporting.
Further information on the AIHW NMD >
The data quality statements underpinning the AIHW NMD can be found on the following ABS internet pages: ABS Deaths, Australia and Causes of death, Australia.
The 2019–20 National Hospital Morbidity Database (NHMD) includes data from all public hospitals and, for the first time, all private hospitals. Further information can be found in the NHMD Data Quality statement.
Drug-related hospitalisations include legal, accessible drugs such as alcohol and tobacco, drugs that are available by prescription or over the counter (for example, analgesics and antidepressants), and drugs that are generally not obtained through legal means (for example, heroin and ecstasy). Therefore, a proportion of the hospitalisations reported here may result from harm arising from the therapeutic use of drugs, and this inclusion may mean the burden on the hospital system appears larger than expected.
The ADAPT Study is an online survey of Australians who regularly (i.e. at least once a month) used illicit drugs in 2019. Participants were invited to complete an initial online survey, that included data for Wave 1 (29 April to 15 June 2020) as well as the initial ‘February 2020’ time point. Follow-up waves of the survey were then completed:
There were 197 participants who participated in all 4 waves of the survey.
The ADAPT Study is not considered representative of all people who use drugs. While the age range of the sample was 18–67 years, among participants who completed all 4 survey waves:
See Key findings from the ‘Australians’ Drug Use: Adapting to Pandemic Threats (ADAPT)’ Study. ADAPT Bulletin no. 4.
Further information on the ADAPT Study >
The Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education (FARE) commissioned YouGov Galaxy to conduct polling of Australians to understand their purchasing and consumption of alcohol during the COVID-19 outbreak in Australia.
The polling was conducted online between 3-5 April 2020. The questionnaire consisted of three questions asking about:
Further information on Alcohol sales and use during COVID-19 >
The 34th ANUpoll collected information from 3,219 respondents aged 18 years and over across all Australian states and territories between 12–24 May 2020. Results were weighted to have a similar distribution to the Australian population across key demographic and geographic variables. While data for the majority of respondents was collected online, a small proportion was collected over the phone.
Respondents were asked several specific questions related to changes in alcohol consumption during COVID-19:
Those who said that their alcohol consumption had increased were subsequently asked:
Respondents were also asked how often, if at all, they currently smoked tobacco and whether they feel that their level of usage of illicit drugs has increased.
Further information on Alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 period: May 2020 >
The Commonwealth Bank’s weekly CBA card spend data indicates how households are changing what they spend their money on. It is derived from transaction authorisations to provide a near real-time up-to-date view as the Coronavirus affects the economy (Aird 2020. Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Global Economic & Markets Research report: CBA Card Spend – week ending 20 March 2020).
The following caveats should be noted when using the data:
For factors that may influence card spending data, see also Clifton 2020. Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Global Economic & Markets Research report: CBA Card Spend – week ending 15 May 2020.
The Household Impacts of COVID-19 Survey is a new series designed to provide a quick snapshot about how people in Australian households are faring in response to the changing social and economic environment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Eight fortnightly surveys were conducted between 1 April and 10 July 2020. The third fortnightly survey was conducted between 29 April and 4 May 2020 and had 1,022 respondents (88.3% response rate from the original 1,158 panel). The seventh survey was conducted between 24 and 29 June 2020 and had 990 respondents (85.5% response rate from the original panel).
Surveys were moved to a monthly cycle in August 2020, and the sample was increased in November 2020. The January 2021 survey was the sixth monthly survey. It was conducted between 18 and 31 January 2021 and had 3,004 participants (88% response rate from the original panel of 1,369 from August 2020 plus 2,031 from November 2020).
The panel selection methodology was not a random sample for the fortnightly surveys (up until August 2020), but was a random sample for the monthly surveys (from August 2020 onwards). Panel data for the fortnightly surveys were weight adjusted using the ABS Estimated Residential Population as at the end of March 2020, while for monthly surveys data were adjusted using ABS ERP projections as at August 2020.
In all surveys (fortnightly and monthly), coverage included all Australian geographies excluding very remote locations. Adjustments were made based on the number of persons living in the household and the education level of the selected person.
Further information on the Household Impacts of COVID-19 Survey >
The National Ambulance Surveillance System (NASS-AOD) is a surveillance system for alcohol and other drug-related ambulance attendances. This monitoring project uses data derived from ambulance service records to examine misuse and overdose of heroin, alcohol, pharmaceutical drugs and other illicit substances.
Data are published for each jurisdiction when that data has been made available. Currently data has not been available for South Australia and Western Australia due to system constraints. The data utilised for this project are generated from electronic data extracted from data obtained through the VACIS® and Siren data collection systems. VACIS® is used by paramedics in the ACT, NSW, Tasmania, and Victoria to record the details of all emergency cases they attend, while St John Ambulance NT uses Siren.
Data are reported on snapshot months, specifically the third month of each fiscal quarter, commencing with March. While Victoria is able to report data for individual months, data are reported here on snapshot months to aid comparability between jurisdictions. From time to time, there may be particular reporting issues within a jurisdiction, this will be footnoted within the data.
Further information on collection methods and data quality can be found on the PLOS website.
The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) data collection contains information on prescription drugs that have been dispensed in accordance with relevant provisions of the National Health Act 1953. The PBS dataset is owned by the Australian Government Department of Health and managed with the assistance of Services Australia, and provides information about subsidised pharmaceutical benefits, and PBS prescriptions supplied at a price below the level of the applicable PBS co-payment amount.
Prescription statistics relying solely on PBS claim data are likely to underestimate total dispensing. Key quality issues to consider for the collection include:
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