Non-medical use of pharmaceutical drugs

Key findings

  • The non-medical use of pharmaceutical drugs is an increasing public health problem in Australia, with evidence suggesting increasing prevalence of misuse and associated harms including mortality.
  • The rate of dispensed prescriptions for pharmaceutical opioids has been climbing—up 11% between 2012–13 and 2016–17.
  • In 2016, 1 in 20 (4.8%) Australians aged 14 and over reported misusing a pharmaceutical drug in the previous 12 months.
  • Pharmaceutical opioids are the most commonly misused pharmaceutical (3.6%), followed by sedatives (1.6%).
  • Between 2008 and 2017, the number of deaths where benzodiazepines or other opioids such as oxycodone were present rose by 105% and 42%, respectively.
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons were 2.3 times as likely to misuse pharmaceuticals drugs as non-Indigenous people were in the previous 12 months.
  • The misuse of pharmaceuticals is perceived to be acceptable by 28% of Australians, which is higher than the perceived level of acceptability for the use of other drugs such as cannabis or meth/amphetamine.
  • People living with mental illness (29%) or chronic pain (16%) reported higher levels of recent misuse of pharmaceuticals than those without these underlying conditions.
  • In 2016–17, 59% of drug-related hospital separations were due to sedatives. 

More information is available in the Non-medical use of pharmaceutical drugs factsheet.

In Australia, pharmaceutical drugs are available via a prescription from a registered healthcare professional or over-the-counter (OTC) from a pharmacy, and are widely used to prevent, treat and cure injury and illness. When used appropriately, pharmaceutical drugs are associated with considerable reductions in morbidity and mortality and are an important pillar of public health. However, pharmaceutical drugs are subject to misuse (see Box PHARMS1 for more information).

Pharmaceutical non-medical use refers to the consumption of a prescription or over-the-counter drug for non-therapeutic purposes or other than directed by a registered healthcare professional (Larance et al. 2011). People may misuse pharmaceutical drugs for a range of reasons including to induce euphoria, to enhance the effects of alcohol and other drugs, to self-medicate illness or injury, to mitigate the symptoms of withdrawal from alcohol and other drugs, or to improve performance.

Box PHARMS1: Common pharmaceuticals used for non-medical purposes in Australia

In Australia, pharmaceutical drugs that are most often subject to non-medical use are opioids (painkillers/analgesics) and sedatives (sleeping/anti-anxiety medications).

Pharmaceutical opioids are used to treat pain and opioid (including heroin) dependence and examples include oxycodone, buprenorphine and codeine.

Sedatives are a group of drugs that cause calming and sedative effects due to their depressive activity on the central nervous system. Benzodiazepines comprise the largest group of drugs in this class and examples include diazepam, alprazolam and temazepam.

The non-medical use of pharmaceutical drugs is a growing problem internationally, with different pharmaceutical opioids being misused in different regions (UNODC 2019). The use of opioids in Australia and New Zealand also remains much higher than the global average (3.3 per cent of the adult population), with the non-medical use of pharmaceutical opioids also being the main opioids of concern (UNODC 2019). In 2016 in the US an estimated 6.2 million people aged 12 and older misused a pharmaceutical drug at least once in the past month, with pharmaceutical opioids (painkillers) the most commonly misused (SAMHSA 2017). Dramatic increases in opioid-related deaths associated with rising use in the US have led to the problem being declared an 'epidemic' (CDC 2017; U.S. Department of Health & Human Services 2017).


Data from the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) indicates that there has been an increase in the prescribing of pharmaceutical opioids in Australia (AIHW 2018a).

  • The number of prescriptions dispensed for opioids rose between 2012–13 and 2016–17 from 13.08 million, a rate of 57,522 per 100,000 population, to 15.42 million, a rate of 63,429 per 100,000 population (Figure PHARMS1). This represents an 11% rise in the rate of opioid prescriptions dispensed over this period.
  • Oxycodone was the most commonly dispensed opioid, with 5.7 million prescriptions dispensed (a rate of 23,515 prescriptions dispensed per 100,000 population), followed by codeine (3.7 million prescriptions, or a rate of 15,216 prescriptions dispensed per 100,000 population) and tramadol (2.7 million prescriptions, or a rate of 11,147 prescriptions dispensed per 100,000 population) (Tables S2.7 and S2.8).

Analysis of 2010–11 to 2014–15 PBS data indicates that there had been a decrease in the prescribing on benzodiazepines:

  • In 2014–15, about 4.86 million prescriptions were dispensed for benzodiazepines, a rate of 19,911 per 100,000 population. Between 2010–11 and 2014–15, the number of prescriptions dispensed for benzodiazepines remained relatively stable, but the rate fell from 21,800 per 100,000 population.
  • In 2014–15, more than one-third (37%) of dispensed benzodiazepine prescriptions were for diazepam (1.81 million prescriptions). Since 2010–11, diazepam has been the only form of benzodiazepine for which the number (up 14%) and rate of prescriptions dispensed rose substantially (from 6,950 to 7,440 per 100,000 population) (AIHW 2017a) (Tables S2.9 and S2.10).

PBS data from 2016–17 shows that the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepine continues to be diazepam with just under 1.7 million prescriptions in 2016–17 (DoH 2017).

The ACIC’s Illicit Drug Data Report includes data on prescription pharmaceuticals detections at the Australian border (ACIC 2019a). The importation of prescription pharmaceuticals is primarily undertaken by individuals for personal use and without criminal intent (ACIC 2019a).

The number of pharmaceutical detections reported at the Australian border only reflect detections of benzodiazepines and opioids (including morphine, buprenorphine, methadone and oxycodone) (ACIC 2019a). In 2017–18 there were a total of 1,425 pharmaceutical detections, an increase of 592% since 2008–09 (206 detections) (ACIC 2019a; ACC 2010). The vast majority (88.4%) of these detections were for benzodiazepines (1,260 in 2017–18). However, though they remain the minority of overall pharmaceutical detections, there has been a 725% increase in the number of pharmaceutical opioid detections over the past decade (165 in 2017-18, up from 20 in 2008–09) (ACIC 2019a; ACC 2010).


Data from the 2016 NDSHS showed that:

  • 1 in 20 (4.8%) Australians aged 14 and over had used a pharmaceutical for non-medical purposes in the previous 12 months (Table S2.32).
  • 1 in 8 (12.8%) Australians aged 14 and over had used a pharmaceutical for non-medical purposes in their lifetime (Table S2.31).
  • 1 in 4 (28%) used pharmaceutical drugs daily or weekly for non-medical purposes (AIHW 2017b).
  • Pharmaceutical opioids/painkillers (excluding over-the-counter) are the most common pharmaceuticals used for non-medical purposes (3.6%), followed by tranquilisers/sleeping pills (1.6%) (Table S2.31 and S2.32).

In 2013, before the break in time series (see Box PHARMS2), the recent use of a pharmaceutical for non-medical purposes was 4.7%, having steadily increased from 3.7% in 2007. Pharmaceutical opioids/painkillers (3.6%) were the most common pharmaceutical used for non-medical purposes in 2013; while there was no change in misuse of all other forms of pharmaceuticals between 2013 and 2016 (AIHW 2017b).

The National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program (NWDMP) data indicates that the average fentanyl and oxycodone consumption was substantially higher in regional sites than capital cities (ACIC 2019b). It is important to note that wastewater analysis cannot differentiate between prescribed and illicit use.

The 2016 NDSHS showed that people who use pharmaceutical drugs for non-medical purposes were older than illicit drug users; in 2016, their mean age was 45 compared with 34 for users of illicit drugs (AIHW 2017b). Non-medical use of pharmaceutical opioids was most common among those in their 40s (4.5%) and least common among those aged 14–19 (2.7%). Those aged 20–29 were most likely to use sedatives (2.1%) for non-medical purposes with those aged 14–19 least likely (1.1%) to use this category of pharmaceuticals for non-medical purposes (Figure PHARMS2).

Box PHARMS2: Changes to pharmaceutical questions in the 2016 NDSHS

In 2016, the way the NDSHS captured non-medical use of painkillers/analgesics and opioids changed to better reflect how these substances are used and understood in the community.


  • over-the-counter non-opioid analgesics, such as paracetamol and aspirin, were removed from the section, because they are not known to be misused for cosmetic purposes, to induce or increase a drug experience, or to increase performance
  • the previously separate ‘painkillers/analgesics’ and ‘other opiates/opioids’ sections of the survey were combined, to avoid capturing users of prescription pain-killer/opiates such as oxycodone in 2 sections
  • categories of analgesics are now defined by their most psychoactive ingredient, rather than their brand name, and brand names are only presented as examples, bringing the section in line with other pharmaceuticals captured in the survey.

There were no changes to the tranquillisers/sleeping pills, steroids, or methadone/buprenorphine sections of the questionnaire.

These changes to the 2016 survey has resulted in a break in the time-series for painkillers and opiates and for the overall misuse of pharmaceuticals.

Data from the 2016 NDSHS showed that more than one-quarter (28%) of Australians aged 14 and over perceive the non-medical use of pharmaceuticals to be acceptable, an increase from 23% in 2013. To put this in perspective, nearly twice the number of people approved the use of pharmaceutical drugs compared with the use of tobacco (15.7%) and cannabis (14.5%) (AIHW 2017b).

Geographic trends

In 2016, among people aged 14 and over (AIHW 2017b):

  • South Australians were more likely to have recently used pain-killers/opiates (4.3%) for non-medical purposes than people in any other state or territory.
  • People living in Tasmania were more than 1.5 times more likely to have recently used tranquillisers/sleeping pills (2.9%) for non-medical purposes than people in other jurisdictions
  • Tasmania (5.6%) and South Australia (5.5%) had the highest rates of non-medical pharmaceutical use.

People living in Remote and Very Remote areas were twice as likely as those from Major Cities to have recently used pain-killers/opiates for non-medical purposes (6.6% compared with 3.3%). Overall, they were 1.7 times more likely than those from Major Cities to have used pharmaceuticals for non-medical purposes (8.0% compared with 4.6%) (Figure PHARMS3).

Similarly, people living in the most disadvantaged socioeconomic areas were 1.8 times more likely than those from the most advantaged socioeconomic areas to have the highest level of non-medical pain-killers/opiates use (4.8% compared with 2.6%). They were also more likely to have used pharmaceuticals for non-medical use in the past 12 months than people living in the most advantaged socioeconomic areas (6.0% compared with 4.2%) (Table S2.13).


There are a range of short and long-term health, social and economic harms associated with the misuse of pharmaceutical drugs (Table PHARMS1).

Table PHARMS1: Short and long term effects associated with pharmaceutical misuse

Drug type

Short-term effects

Longer-term effects

Pharmaceutical opioids

  • Constipation
  • Nausea
  • Sedation
  • Vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • Itching
  • Dry mouth
  • Overdose (fatal and non-fatal)
  • Dependence
  • Decreased cognitive function
  • Psychiatric co-morbidity
  • Occlusion of blood vessels
  • Gastro-intestinal bleeding
  • Mental health conditions including depression


  • Relaxation, sleepiness and lack of energy
  • Dizziness
  • Euphoria
  • Confusion
  • Visual distortions
  • Moodiness
  • Short-term memory loss
  • Anxiety, irritability, paranoia, aggression and depression
    Muscle weakness, rashes, nausea and weight gain
  • Sexual problems
  • Menstrual irregularities
  • Memory loss, cognitive impairment, dementia and falls
  • Confusion, lethargy and sleep problems

Source: Adapted from Currow, Phillips & Clark 2016; DCPC 2007; Nicholas, Lee & Roche 2011; NSW Ministry of Health 2017.

Mental health

In the 2016 NDSHS, adults aged 18 and over who had recently misused a pharmaceutical were more likely than those who had not to:

  • Assess their health status as good, fair or poor (53%) compared with 44% who had not recently misused a pharmaceutical.
  • Self-report higher rates of health conditions, particularly for the conditions of mental illness (29% compared with 15.2%) and chronic pain (15.9% compared with 10.3%).
  • Have experienced ‘high or very high’ levels of psychological distress (24% compared with 11%) (Table S2.75).

There were also differences in mental health status depending on the type of pharmaceutical drug used. Specifically:

  • Adults misusing benzodiazepines were more likely to report a mental illness, including anxiety disorders and depression, than people misusing opioid analgesics (35% compared with 29%).
  • Adults who misused benzodiazepines were slightly more likely than those who misused opioid analgesics to experience ‘high or very high’ levels of psychological distress (28% compared with 24%) (Figure PHARMS4).


A hospital separation is a completed episode of admitted hospital care ending with discharge, death, transfer, or a portion of a hospital stay. The AIHW’s National Hospital Morbidity Database (NHMD) showed that in 2016–17 of all separations with a drug-related principal diagnosis:

  • sedatives and hypnotics (including alcohol) accounted for the highest proportion (59%)
  • in 87% of separations involving sedatives, alcohol was also involved
  • 13% were for opioids, with heroin, opium, morphine and methadone accounting for half of this group (6.6% of all drug-related separations) (AIHW 2018c).


Of the 1,795 drug induced deaths in 2017 (rate of 7.4 per 100,000 population) identified in the AIHW National Mortality Database, the most common substance present was a benzodiazepine (46%) followed by other opioids such as oxycodone, morphine and codeine (30%) (Figure PHARMS5) (AIHW 2019a). Between 2008 and 2017, the number of deaths where benzodiazepines or other opioids such as oxycodone were present rose by 105% and 42%, respectively (AIHW 2019a).

Data from the ABS in 2016, indicated that in over 96% of drug-induced deaths where benzodiazepines were present, they were taken in conjunction with other drugs including alcohol (ABS 2017).

The National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC) reported that in 2017, among people aged 15–64 years there were 671 deaths (63%) attributed to pharmaceutical opioids only, 301 (28%) deaths to illicit opioids only (such as heroin and opium) and 88 (8%)  deaths to pharmaceutical opioids and illicit opioids (Chrzanowska et al. 2019). For synthetic opioid analgesics (including fentanyl and tramadol) specifically, the rate of attributable deaths among people aged 15–64 years has increased from 0.11 per 100,000 in 2007 (n=15) to 1.43 per 100,000 in 2017 (n=232) (Chrzanowska et al. 2019).


Data collected as part of the AIHW’s 2017–18 Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Dataset (AODTS NMDS) showed that:

  • Pharmaceuticals were the principal drug of concern in 4.8% of closed treatment episodes. In treatment episodes, pharmaceuticals was more likely to be identified as an additional drug of concern (7.8%) than a principal drug of concern (Table S2.76 and Figure PHARMS6).
  • Client demographics:
    • Where pharmaceuticals were the principal drug of concern, over half (58%) the clients were male, and around 1 in 10 were Indigenous (12.2% or 1,167 clients) (Table S2.79).
    • In 2017–18, a higher proportion of female clients (53%) reported codeine as their principal drug of concern, and women were slightly more likely than males to report other sedatives and hypnotics as their principal drug of concern (51%) (Table S2.79).
  • Source of referral:
    • Almost half of the referrals for treatment episodes where pharmaceuticals were the principal drug of concern were for self/family (47%), followed by a health service (38%) (Table S2.80).
  • Treatment type:
    • The most common main treatment type for episodes where pharmaceuticals were the principal drug of concern was counselling (25%) followed by assessment only (22%) (AIHW 2019b) (Table S2.81).

At-risk groups

The available evidence indicates that the misuse of pharmaceuticals among vulnerable populations is at substantially higher levels than in the general population.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons

Data from the 2016 NDSHS showed that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons about one in 10 (10.6%) had used a pharmaceutical for non-medical purposes. This was about 2.3 times higher than the rate for non-Indigenous Australians (4.6%) (AIHW 2017b). The ABS 2014–15 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS) found that the non-medical use of pharmaceuticals among Indigenous Australians was higher than reported in the NDSHS, with 12.6% of Indigenous Australians aged 15 and over having recently used a pharmaceutical for non-medical purposes (ABS 2016).

People engaged in the criminal justice system

Data from the Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA) program is unable to specify the proportions of non-medical use of pharmaceuticals, yet showed a stable proportion of detainees tested positive to benzodiazepines in 2016–17 (21.3%) and 2017–18 (21.1%)  (ACIC 2019a). There were also 10.8% of police detainees that tested positive to any opiates (including heroin, methadone, buprenorphine, prescription opiates and others) in 2017–18, a decrease from 12.8% in 2016–17 (ACIC 2019a).

People in remote and disadvantaged socioeconomic areas

Data from the 2016 NDSHS showed that people living in Remote and very remote areas were 1.7 times as likely as those living in Major cities to have recently misused a pharmaceutical (8.0% compared with 4.6%). In particular, use of opioid analgesics in these areas was twice as high as in Remote and very remote areas compared with Major cities (6.6% compared with 3.3%) (AIHW 2018a). Whereas the levels of recent benzodiazepine misuse in these areas was similar, 1.7% compared with 1.8% (AIHW 2017b).

This is consistent with data from the National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program that found the pharmaceutical opioids oxycodone and fentanyl, were detected at higher levels in regional areas than capital city areas (ACIC 2019b).

People living with chronic pain

People who use opioids for chronic pain are more likely than the general population to misuse pharmaceutical drugs (Currow, Phillips & Clark 2016; Vowels et al. 2015). Iatrogenic dependence occurs when patients become dependent on medications that they were medically prescribed for legitimate purposes. Iatrogenic dependence is an increasing concern among people living with chronic non-cancer pain.

People who inject drugs

People who inject drugs may substitute illicit drugs, such as heroin, for pharmaceutical drugs depending on availability. It is well known that people who inject drugs consume pharmaceutical drugs, particularly prescription opioids, at far higher rates than the general population (Peacock et al. 2018).

Data from the 2018 IDRS showed that respondents commonly reported the non-prescribed use of the following drugs in the preceding 6 months (TGA 2017):

  • Morphine (22%)
  • Oxycodone (14%)
  • Buprenorphine (7%) and buprenorphine-naloxone film (10%)
  • Fentanyl (7%).

Policy context

Real-time prescription monitoring

In July 2017, the Australian Government announced $16 million in funding to implement a national real-time monitoring system of prescription drugs. The system will provide an instant alert to pharmacists and doctors if patients are receiving multiple supplies of prescription only medicines (also referred to as ‘doctor or pharmacy shopping’). The program will initially include the monitoring of controlled medicines that are particularly susceptible to misuse including morphine, oxycodone, dexamphetamine and alprazolam. The system aims to assist doctors and pharmacists to identify patients who are at risk of harm due to dependency, misuse or abuse of pharmaceutical drugs and patients that are diverting these medicines.

Restricting access to codeine

As of 1 February 2018, medicines containing codeine were no longer sold over-the-counter in pharmacies and were available by prescription only. This decision was made by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) following substantial evidence of harm from the abuse and misuse of low dose codeine-containing medicines including analgesic preparations combined with other pain relief medicines such as aspirin, paracetamol and ibuprofen (TGA 2017).

Resources and further information


ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) 2016. National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander social survey, 2014–15. ABS cat. no. 4714.0. Canberra: ABS. Viewed 14 December 2017.

ABS 2017. Causes of death, Australia, 2016. ABS cat no. 3303.0. Canberra: ABS.

ACC (Australian Crime Commission) 2010. Illicit drug data report 2008–09. Canberra: ACIC. Viewed 7 August 2019.

ACIC (Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission) 2019a. Illicit drug data report 2017–18. Canberra: ACIC. Viewed 7 August 2019.

ACIC 2019b. National wastewater drug monitoring program, report 7. Canberra: ACIC. Viewed 18 June 2019.

AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2017a. Non-medical use of pharmaceuticals: trends, harms and treatment 2006–07 and 2015–16. Cat. no. HSE 195. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 19 January 2018.

AIHW 2017b. National drug strategy household survey 2016: detailed findings. Drug statistics series no. 31. Cat. no. PHE 214. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 14 December 2017.

AIHW 2018a. Opioid harm in Australian and comparisons between Australia and Canada. Cat. no. HSE 210. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW 2018b. Drug related hospitalisations. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 30 November 2018.

AIHW 2019a. Alcohol and other drug use in regional and remote Australia: consumption, harms and access to treatment, 2016–17. Cat. no. HSE 212. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 March 2019.

AIHW 2019b. Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2017–18: key findings. Web Report. Viewed 2 April 2019.

Chrzanowska A, Dobbins T, Degenhardt L & Peacock A 2019. Trends in Drug-Induced Deaths in Australia, 1997–2017. Drug Trends. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Australia. Viewed 16 July 2019.

CDC (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention) 2017. Prescription opioid overdose data. Viewed 30 November 2017.

Currow DC, Phillips J & Clark K 2016. Using opioids in general practice for chronic non-cancer pain: an overview of current evidence. The Medical Journal of Australia. 204(8):305–209.

Degenhardt L, Gilmour S, Shand F, Bruno R, Campbell G, Mattick RP et al. 2013. Estimating the proportion of prescription opioids that is consumed by people who inject drugs in Australia. Drug and Alcohol Review 32(5):468–74.

DoH (Department of Health) 2017. Expenditure and prescriptions twelve months to June 2017. Canberra: DoH. Viewed 5 June 2018.

DCPC (Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee) 2007. Inquiry into the misuse/abuse of benzodiazepines and other forms of pharmaceutical drugs in Victoria: final report. Melbourne: Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee. Viewed 5 October 2017.

Larance B, Degenhardt L, Lintzeris N, Winstock A & Mattick R 2011. Definitions related to the use of pharmaceutical opioids: extramedical use, diversion, non-adherence and aberrant medication-related behaviours. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(3):236–245.

NSW Ministry of Health 2017. A quick guide to drugs and alcohol, 3rd edn. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre.

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Peacock A, Gibbs D, Sutherland R, Uporova J, Karlsson A, Bruno R et al. 2018. Australian Drug Trends 2018. Key findings from the National Illicit Drug Reporting System Interviews. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Australia.

SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) 2017. Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: results from the 2016 national survey on drug use and health. Publication no. SMA 17-5044, NSDUH Series H-52. Rockville: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Viewed 30 November 2017.

TGA (Therapeutic Goods Administration) 2017. Codeine information hub: changes to patient access for medicines containing codeine. Canberra: Department of Health. Viewed 5 October 2017.

UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) 2019. World Drug Report 2019Vienna: UNODC. Viewed 16 July 2019.

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services 2017. Opioids: the prescription drug and heroin overdose epidemic. Washington, D.C: DHHS. Viewed 7 December 2017.

Vowels KE, McEntee ML, Julnes PS, Frohe T, Ney JP & van der Goes, DN 2015. Rates of opioid misuse, abuse and addiction in chronic pain: a systematic review and data synthesis. PAIN (156):569–576.