Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2021. Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia. Cat. no. PHE 221. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 26 October 2021, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2021). Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia
Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 24 September 2021, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2021 [cited 2021 Oct. 26]. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2021, Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia, viewed 26 October 2021, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia
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Stimulants are a group of drugs that produce stimulatory effects by increasing nerve transmission in the brain and body (Nielsen & Gisev 2017). Included in this group are:
Recent consumption of meth/amphetamine decreased among people aged 14 and over from 3.4% in 2001 to 1.3% in 2019
Recent cocaine use increased significantly between 2016 (2.5%) and 2019 (4.2%) across all age groups, except 14–19 year olds
Australia had the fourth highest average total stimulant consumption when compared with 29 countries across Europe, North America, Oceania, and South Africa
Methamphetamines accounted for
10% of all
in 2019–20, up from
6.9% in 2015–16.
The rate of deaths involving methamphetamine and other stimulants was higher in 2019 than in 2000 (2.0 deaths compared with 0.5 per 100,000 population, respectively)
In 2019–20, amphetamines were the second most common principal drug of concern in closed treatment episodes provided for clients’ own drug use (28%)
View the Meth/amphetamine and other stimulants in Australia fact sheet >
The focus in this section is on the illicit use of meth/amphetamine and other stimulants (Box STIM1).
Data sources on methamphetamine, amphetamine and other psychostimulants contain a variety of terms; in some instances these terms cover similar, but not the same range of drugs. This can be confusing when interpreting results across different data sources.
Below is a description of each term used in these data sources and the types of drugs they encompass:
People who regularly use illicit drugs report that methamphetamine and other stimulants are easy to obtain in Australia.
Findings from the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) show that people who inject drugs commonly report it is ‘easy’ or ‘very easy’ to obtain methamphetamine and other stimulants, specifically:
Similarly, data from the 2020 Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) show that most people who use ecstasy and other stimulants report that methamphetamine, ecstasy and cocaine are ‘easy’ or ‘very easy’ to obtain (Peacock et al. 2020). Findings show that:
In 2020, the EDRS and IDRS collections took place during the COVID-19 restriction period (April–July for the EDRS, and June–September for the IDRS). Data that relate to the previous 12 months will reflect behaviours both before and during the COVID-19 period. This should be taken into account when comparing data between 2020 and previous years.
In 2018–19, just over a third of national illicit drug seizures (38,250 or 34.0%) were for ATS (including MDMA). The number of national ATS seizures has increased by 263% over the last decade, with 38,250 seizures in 2018–19, up from 10,543 in 2009–10. In 2018–19, ATS accounted for 33% of the total weight of illicit drugs seized nationally. The total weight of ATS seized nationally has increased 1,206% over the last decade, from 671 kilograms in 2009–10 to 8,776.5 kilograms in 2018–19. The 32,021 national amphetamines seizures in 2018–19 weighed 4,418.0 kilograms and accounted for 84% of the number and 50% of the weight of ATS seized nationally this reporting period (ACIC 2020a). Recent research (ACIC 2019b) has shown the impact of seizures on consumption—see Supply reduction – Prohibited substances (ACIC 2020a; tables S1.21 and S1.22).
In 2018–19, there were 2,022 amphetamine-type stimulant (excluding MDMA) detections at the Australian border, weighing 5,148.4 kilograms. The number of MDMA (ecstasy) detections at the Australian border was 3,777 in 2018–19, while the weight of MDMA detected was 2,124.9 kilograms, the highest weight recorded in the last decade. The number of national MDMA seizures was 6,103 in 2018–19, and the total weight of MDMA seized nationally was 1,560.0 kilograms, accounting for 27% of the number and 18% of the weight of ATS seized nationally this reporting period (ACIC 2020a).
Over the last decade, the number of cocaine detections at the Australian border increased by 826%, from 291 in 2009–10 to 2,695 in 2018–19. The weight of cocaine detected has increased by 171%, from 386.8 kilograms in 2009–10 to 1,049.6 kilograms in 2018–19 (ACIC 2020a).
The number of national cocaine seizures has increased by 255% over the last decade, from 1,517 in 2009–10 to a record 5,378 in 2018–19. The weight of cocaine seized nationally increased by 315% over the same period, from 394.8 kilograms in 2009–10 to 1,638.5 kilograms in 2018–19 (ACIC 2020a).
For related content on meth/amphetamine and other stimulant consumption by region, see also:
There are differences in trends and patterns of consumption in Australia according to the type of stimulant used.
Collection of drug use data in the 2020 Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) took place during the COVID-19 restriction period between April and July 2020. Data that relate to the previous 6-12 months will reflect behaviours both before and during the COVID-19 period. This should be taken into account when comparing data between 2020 and previous years.
Self-reported data on meth/amphetamine consumption in the general Australian population has been declining since it peaked at 3.4% in 2001. There was a substantial decrease in the recent use of meth/amphetamine among people aged 20–29 (from 11.2% in 2001 to 2.4% in 2019), however, there were slight increases for people aged 40 and over (Table S2.44). It is possible that self-report surveys underestimate the true extent of meth/amphetamine use, particularly in the context of the stigmas that exist around its consumption (AIHW 2020).
In 2013, ‘crystal/ice’ replaced powder as the main form of meth/amphetamine used in the previous 12 months. In 2019, this trend continued with 50% of people who used meth/amphetamine reporting that crystal/ice was the main form used in the previous 12 months (AIHW 2020). While overall recent meth/amphetamine use declined between 2013 and 2019, the proportion using crystal/ice remained relatively stable (AIHW 2020).
Participants in the EDRS reported a decrease in the use of crystal methamphetamine in the preceding 6 months (26% in 2011 to 12% in 2020) (Peacock et al. 2020) (Table S2.49).
The figure shows the proportion of people who recently used meth/amphetamine in the last 12 months by age group from 2001 to 2019. Between 2001 and 2019, there were decreases for age groups of 14–19, 20–29, and 14 and over who had recently used meth/amphetamine. Over the same period, the proportion of people aged 30–39, and 50 and over who recently used meth/amphetamine remained stable. In 2019, people aged 20–29 (2.4%) and 30–39 (2.0%) were most likely to have recently used meth/amphetamine.
There was a significant increase in lifetime use of cocaine between 2016 (9%) and 2019 (11.2%) (Table S2.31). This was driven largely by increases for people aged 20–29 (from 13.2% to 19.5%), 40–49 (from 12.0% to 15.3%) and 50 and older (3.4% to 4.3%) (AIHW 2020).
For participants of the EDRS, cocaine was the third most commonly used stimulant drug (after ecstasy and cannabis) with 68% reporting recent use in 2020, the highest percentage of participants in the study’s history (Peacock et al. 2020).
Recent data from the National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program (NWDMP) show that the population-weighted average consumption of stimulant drugs varies based on drug type and geographic area.
Methylamphetamine continues to have the highest population-weighted average consumption of any illicit drug monitored by the program (ACIC 2021b). Data from the latest NWDMP report indicate that nationally:
Between August 2016 and August 2020, the estimated population-weighted average methylamphetamine consumption decreased in both regional areas and capital cities (ACIC 2021a). The estimated weight of methylamphetamine consumed increased from 8,405 kilograms in 2016–17 to 11,516 kilograms in 2018–19, before declining to 11,147 kilograms in 2019–20 (ACIC 2021a; Figure STIM2).
For state and territory data, see the National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program reports.
(a) “Average consumption” refers to estimated population-weighted average consumption.
Note: Data are from 56 wastewater treatment sites, covering approximately 56% of the Australian population in 2020.
Source: AIHW. Adapted from NWDMP Report 12.
MDMA consumption is low across the country, relative to other illicit drugs. The estimated weight of MDMA consumed has steadily increased from 1,162 kilograms in 2017–18 to 2,630 kilograms in 2019–20 (ACIC 2021a). Data from the latest NWDMP reports indicate that nationally:
Cocaine consumption has shown a long-term increase. The estimated weight of cocaine consumed has steadily increased from 3,057 kilograms in 2016–17 to 5,675 kilograms in 2019–20 (ACIC 2021a). Data from the latest NWDMP reports indicate that:
It is important to note that the NWDMP does not measure all drug types and cannabis (the drug found to have the highest self-reported level of recent consumption in the 2019 NDSHS) was not included in the comparison of the highest consumed drugs monitored by the program. For further information, see Box HARM2 and Data quality for the National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program.
Data from the 2019 NDSHS showed that:
This figure shows the proportion of recent cocaine use for people aged 14 and over by remoteness area for 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019. Recent cocaine use trends differed across all 4 remoteness areas between 2010 and 2019. In 2019, recent cocaine use was more common in Major cities (5%) than in Outer regional and Remote and very remote areas (1.4% and 1.7%, respectively).
View data tables >
The National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program (NWDMP) recently examined average stimulant consumption (amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, and MDMA) in Australia compared with 29 countries across Europe, North America, Oceania, and South Africa. In 2019:
When examining each drug type as a proportion of total combined stimulant consumption:
Poly drug use is defined as the use of more than 1 illicit drug or licit drug in the previous 12 months. In 2019, the NDSHS showed that only 8.1% of people who reported using meth/amphetamine in the last 12 months said they did not use any other illicit drug. The most common other drugs concurrently used were cannabis (78%) and cocaine (57%). More than three-quarters exceeded the alcohol single occasion risk guideline at least monthly (76%) and over half (54%) exceeded the lifetime risk guideline (Table S2.68).
People who reported recent use of ecstasy and cocaine also reported concurrent use of cannabis (77% and 69%, respectively) and 8 in 10 exceeded the alcohol single occasion risk guideline at least monthly (83% and 82%, respectively).
Data on alcohol and other drug-related ambulance attendances are sourced from the National Ambulance Surveillance System for Alcohol and Other Drug Misuse and Overdose. Data for 2020 are currently available for New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory. Data are presented for 4 snapshot months per year, specifically March, June, September and December. Please see the data quality statement for further information.
The proportion of meth/amphetamine-related ambulance attendances where multiple drugs were consumed ranged from 30% of attendances in Queensland to 44% of attendances in Victoria (Table S2.81).
For related content on meth/amphetamine and other stimulant impacts and harms, see also:
The short and long-term effects associated with the use of methamphetamine and other stimulants are provided in Table STIM1.
Methamphetamine (includes powder, base and crystal/ice)
Source: Adapted from ACIC 2019a; Darke, Kaye & Duflou 2017; NSW Ministry of Health 2017.
The Australian Burden of Disease Study 2018 – Key findings report was released in August 2021. Full results from the Study, including more detailed reports, methods and interactive data visualisations, are planned for release in November 2021.
The Australian Burden of Disease Study, 2015, found that amphetamine use was responsible for 0.6% of the total burden of disease and injuries in Australia in 2015 and 21% of the total burden due to illicit drug use (AIHW 2019b) (Table S2.69).
Of the burden due to amphetamine use, drug use disorder (excluding alcohol) contributed 28%, poisoning 5% and suicide and self-inflicted injuries 4.3%. Other contributors to the burden due to amphetamine use included road traffic injuries—motorcyclists (3.2%) and road traffic injuries—motor vehicle occupants (2.5%) (AIHW 2019b).
Cocaine use contributed 0.3% of the total burden of disease and injuries in 2015 and 11.4% of the total burden due to illicit drug use (Table S2.69). Of the burden due to cocaine use, suicide and self-inflicted injuries accounted for 6.2% and drug use disorder (excluding alcohol) 11% (AIHW 2019b).
Data on alcohol and other drug-related ambulance attendances are sourced from the National Ambulance Surveillance System for Alcohol and Other Drug Misuse and Overdose.
In 2020, for meth/amphetamine-related ambulance attendances (including crystal methamphetamine):
The characteristics of meth/amphetamine-related ambulance attendances varied by region in 2020:
In Queensland, similar rates were reported in metropolitan and regional areas (26.5 per 100,000 population metropolitan and 26.2 regional).
Drug-related hospitalisations are defined as hospitalisations with a principal diagnosis relating to a substance use disorder or direct harm relating to use of selected substances (AIHW 2018). In 2019–20, methamphetamines accounted for 1 in 10 (10.0%) drug-related hospitalisations. Less than 1% (0.9%) of drug-related hospitalisations were for cocaine (Table S1.8b).
AIHW analysis of the National Hospital Morbidity Database (NHMD) showed an increase in the number of hospitalisations related to methamphetamines and cocaine in recent years.
Similarly, analysis by the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC) showed that, taking into account population growth and aging, the rate of cocaine-related hospitalisations increased almost 6-fold between 2010–11 (0.8 per 100,000 population) and 2018–19 (4.7 per 100,000 population) (Man et al. 2021).
In 2019–20, over 2 in 3 (69%) methamphetamine-related hospitalisations occurred in Major cities. In Australia, the rates of hospitalisations for methamphetamines and cocaine are typically higher in Major cities and Regional areas than in Remote or very remote areas (Man et al. 2021). AIHW analysis of the NHMD showed that, in 2019–20:
Drug-induced deaths are defined as those that can be directly attributable to drug use, as determined by toxicology and pathology reports (ABS 2017). The rate of drug-induced deaths related to methamphetamine and other stimulants has increased rapidly in recent years.
Data from the AIHW Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Data Set (AODTS NMDS) for amphetamines correspond to the Australian Standard Classification of Drugs of Concern (ASCDC) code for the general ‘amphetamines’ classification, in which methamphetamine is a sub-classification. Specific coding for methamphetamine episodes have not previously been available due to the nature of the coding structure. This has improved over time, due to improved workforce training and new system updates (AIHW 2021).
The Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Data Set (AODTS NMDS) provides information on treatment provided to clients by publicly funded AOD treatment services, including government and non-government organisations. Data from the AODTS NMDS showed that amphetamines were the 2nd most common principal drug of concern in closed treatment episodes provided to clients in 2019–20. Amphetamines were the principal drug of concern in 28% of closed treatment episodes for clients’ own drug use—the same proportion as 2018–19 (Figure STIM4). Almost 4 in 5 (78%) amphetamine treatment episodes were for methamphetamine (AIHW 2021).
In 2019–20, where amphetamines were the principal drug of concern:
Source: AIHW. Supplementary tables S2.76, S2.78 and S2.80.
In 2016–17, where the principal drug of concern was amphetamines, the proportion of people living in Regional and remote areas who travelled 1 hour or longer to treatment services was higher than in Major cities (31% compared with 10%) (AIHW 2019a).
In 2019–20, ecstasy was the principal drug of concern in less than 1% (0.6%) of closed treatment episodes provided for clients’ own drug use (Table S2.76). Treatment episodes for ecstasy remained relatively stable over the 10-year period to 2019–20.
In 2019–20, where ecstasy was the principal drug of concern:
In 2019–20, cocaine was the principal drug of concern in 1% of closed treatment episodes provided for clients’ own drug use (Table S2.76). The proportion of treatment episodes for cocaine has remained low over the 10-year period to 2019–20, but the number of episodes increased by over 300% from 2010–11 (501 episodes) to 2019–20 (2,086 episodes) (AIHW 2021).
In 2019–20, where cocaine was the principal drug of concern:
For related content on at-risk groups, see:
The use of meth/amphetamine and other stimulants can be disproportionately higher for specific population groups.
The NDSHS found that between 2016 and 2019, more people associated meth/amphetamine with a drug problem (46% compared with 49%) and thought it caused the most deaths (19.2% compared with 20%)(tables S2.36 and S2.70). Meth/amphetamine was reported to be the drug of most concern to the community by 2 in 5 (40%) people (Table S2.37).
In April 2015, the Australian Government established a National Ice Taskforce, to provide advice on the development of a National Ice Action Strategy (NIAS).
The objectives of the NIAS are to ensure that:
ACIC (Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission) 2019. Methylamphetamine supply reduction—measures of effectiveness. Canberra: ACIC. Viewed 14 October 2019.
ACIC 2020a. Illicit Drug Data Report 2018–19. Canberra: ACIC. Viewed 20 October 2020.
ACIC 2020b. National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program Report 10. Canberra: ACIC. Viewed 30 June 2020.
ACIC 2021a. National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program Report 12. Canberra: ACIC. Viewed 1 March 2021.
ACIC 2021b. National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program Report 13. Canberra: ACIC. Viewed 18 August 2021.
AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2018. Drug related hospitalisations. Cat. no. HSE 220. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 18 August 2021.
AIHW 2019a. Alcohol and other drug use in regional and remote Australia: consumption, harms and access to treatment, 2016–17. Cat. no. HSE 212. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 March 2019.
AIHW 2019b. Australian burden of disease study: Impact and causes of illness and death in Australia 2015. Series no.19. BOD 22. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 13 June 2019.
AIHW 2019c. The health of Australia’s prisoners 2018. Cat. no. PHE 246. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 30 May 2018.
AIHW 2020. National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2019. Drug statistics series no. 32. Cat. no. PHE 270. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 16 July 2020.
AIHW 2021. Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia annual report. Cat. no. HSE 250. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 16 July 2021.
Chrzanowska A, Man A, Sutherland R, Degenhardt L & Peacock A 2021. Trends in drug-induced deaths in Australia, 1997–2019. Drug Trends Bulletin Series. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW. Viewed 23 April 2021.
Darke S, Kaye S & Duflou J 2017. Rates, characteristics and circumstances of methamphetamine-related death in Australia: a national 7-year study. Addiction 112: 2191-2201.
DoH (Department of Health) 2017. National ice action strategy. Canberra: DoH. Viewed 29 November 2017.
Man N, Chrzanowska A, Sutherland R, Degenhardt L & Peacock A 2021. Trends in drug-related hospitalisations in Australia, 1999–2019. Drug Trends Bulletin Series. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW. Viewed 13 August 2021.
Nielsen S & Gisev N 2017. Drug pharmacology and pharmacotherapy treatments. In Ritter, King and Lee (eds). Drug use in Australian society. 2nd edn. Oxford University Press.
NSW Ministry of Health 2017. A quick guide to drugs & alcohol, 3rd edn. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW. Viewed 24 June 2021.
Peacock A, Uporova J, Karlsson A, Gibbs D, Swanton R, Kelly G et al. 2019. Australian Drug Trends 2019: Key findings from the National Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) Interviews. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre UNSW.
Peacock A, Uporova J, Karlsson A, Price O, Gibbs D, Swanton R et al. 2021. Australian Drug Trends 2020: Key findings from the National Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) interviews. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW.
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